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Now showing 1 - 20 of 24
  • Publication
    Adapting ENTSO-E network data for power system simulation
    (IEEE, 2023-06) Ledesma Larrea, Pablo; Arredondo Rodríguez, Francisco; Moreno López de Saá, María Ángeles; Agencia Estatal de Investigación (España)
    A method is proposed to obtain a power system simulation model using the transmission system data made available by ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators, in the Common Information Model (CIM). The most relevant characteristics of the CIM are briefly described, and the procedure to convert the original data into a simulation model is described. The proposed method is a Python program that reads the original data in CGMES format from CIM/XML files and writes the simulation model for two different applications: open-source Python module pandapower and commercial software PSS/E. Examples of power flows with both tools are provided.
  • Publication
    Harmonic Propagation in Hybrid Microgrids: A Simulation-based Analysis
    (IEEE, 2023-06) Jiménez-Román, C. R.; Arredondo Rodríguez, Francisco; Serrano-Jiménez, D.; Hernández-Mayoral, E.; Agencia Estatal de Investigación (España)
    Hybrid Microgrids (HMGs), which consists of distributed renewable generation, energy storage systems, and power electronics devices, are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential for improving the sustainability of electric energy systems. The inclusion of these devices in a microgrid can lead to harmonic distortion issues, which can negatively impact the Power Quality (PQ) of the system. This paper presents a simulation-based analysis of harmonic propagation in a HMG, using a model created in MATLAB/Simulink that includes the most representative devices found in this type of systems. The study investigates harmonic propagation under different scenarios and identifies significant harmonic distortion issues when a wind turbine (WT) is connected to different nodes of the system. The results of this study provide valuable insights into the challenges of harmonic propagation in HMGs and highlight the need for effective strategies to mitigate the impact of harmonic distortion on system performance. The proposed simulation framework provides a valuable tool for designing and optimizing HMGs to mitigate harmonic propagation and improve PQ. The findings highlight the importance of careful modeling and analysis of harmonic propagation in HMGs to ensure their successful operation and long-term sustainability.
  • Publication
    Optimal economic dispatch of hybrid microgrids integrating Energy Storage Systems with Grid-Forming Converters
    (Universidad de Vigo, 2022-09) Gonzalez De Armas, Marcial; Arnaltes Gómez, Santiago; Arredondo Rodríguez, Francisco; Rodríguez Amenedo, José Luis; Comunidad de Madrid
    New control strategies based on Grid-Forming converters make possible the operation of isolated microgrids without the support of synchronous generation. This paper proposes an Energy Management System algorithm that optimizes the operation of a microgrid, maximizing the integration of renewable energy and considering the possibility of disconnecting all synchronous generators. The algorithm is applied to a microgrid modelled with real data and two economic dispatch strategies are analysed: the first requires keeping at least one synchronous generator connected to provide frequency regulation following standard practice; and the second considers the disconnection of all conventional generation relying on the capabilities of Grid-Forming converters when sufficient reserve is available. The results show that the proposed strategy reduces the operational cost of the system, as well as solar PV curtailment and diesel consumption.
  • Publication
    A nested decision tree for event detection in smart grids
    (European Association for the Development of Renewable Energy, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ), 2022-09) Turanzas, J.; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Gutierrez, J.; Pastrana Portillo, Sergio
    Digitalization process experienced by traditional power networks towards smart grids extend the challenges faced by power grid operators to the field of cybersecurity. False data injection attacks, one of the most common cyberattacks in smart grids, could lead the power grid to sabotage itself. In this paper, an event detection algorithm for cyberattack in smart grids is developed based on a decision tree. In order to find the most accurate algorithm, two different decision trees with two different goals have been trained: one classifies the status of the network, corresponding to an event, and the other will classify the location where the event is detected. To train the decision trees, a dataset made by co-simulating a power network and a communication network has been used. The decision trees are going to be compared in different settings by changing the division criteria, the dataset used to train them and the misclassification cost. After looking at their performance independently, the best way to combine them into a single algorithm is presented.
  • Publication
    Coordination of power reactive management considering variations in wind speed from wind farms and power transmission limits
    (Associação Brasileira de Métodos Computacionais em Engenharia (ABMEC), 2020-11-16) Santos, Leonardo L. S.; De Souza Neto, Antonio R.; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Belati, Edmarcio A.; Ângelos, Eduardo W. S.; Melo, Joel D.
    This paper presents a methodology that allows performing the optimized and coordinated management of reactive power injection in power systems with wind farms and other sources of reactive injection, such as capacitor banks or static voltage compensators, minimizing the losses in the transmission power system. The variation in wind speed is characterized by the Weibull distribution. The values of this distribution are used as input data for the optimal power flow model whose output provides a sample of values for defining the confidence intervals of the injected reactive power, as well as the voltage values in each bus of the electrical system. The proposed methodology was tested using a real 140 buses system to determine the dispatch of reactive sources available in the power system. The results found by the proposal can help to make a better management of the available reactive sources in the real-time operation.
  • Publication
    Modelos de generación Híbrido-Marina con almacenamiento de volante de inercia
    (2019-09-08) Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Rojas Delgado, Brenda Carolina; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Santiago, Juan De
    El presente trabajo propone un nuevo sistema de control de instalaciones marinas para mejorar el suavizado de la potencia de salida mediante la hibridación de las mismas con un sistema de almacenamiento de energía mediante flywheel (FESS). El control propuesto está formado por tres etapas: en la primera se agrega la potencia de salida de varios generadores marinos, a continuación, se realiza un filtrado de la potencia, y finalmente se controla la energía almacenada en el FESS para mejorar la calidad de la potencia entregada a la red. El modelo propuesto se ha validado empleando los datos de producción real de una instalación real situada en Lysekil (Suecia). Los resultados obtenidos muestran una reducción del 85% en la potencia máxima entregada a red, así como una reducción del 76% en la relación entre la potencia máxima y media a la salida de la instalación. Además, las pérdidas de potencia activa se ven reducidas en un 51% mejorando la eficiencia de la red eléctrica. Finalmente, la instalación híbrida propuesta es capaz de seguir una consigna impuesta por el operador de red, presentán-dose ante la red de distribución como un nuevo recurso distribuido capaz de ofrecer servicios auxiliares al operador de la red.
  • Publication
    Retos en materia de ciberseguridad en smart grids
    (Grupo Tecma Red, S.L., 2020-12-16) Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Pastrana Portillo, Sergio; Turanzas, Jaime; Gálvez, Lucía; Ledo, Angel T.
    En el proceso de digitalización de las redes eléctricas hacia las smart grids, el aumento de comunicación entre los dispositivos que la componen extiende los retos a los que se enfrentan los operadores de las redes eléctricas hasta el campo de la ciberseguridad. En el presente trabajo se muestran los principales retos en materia de ciberseguridad de las smart grids en tres ámbitos: (i) los sistemas de protección de las smart grids, atendiendo al impacto social derivado de la pérdida de una línea y el desabastecimiento de cargas, así como la posibilidad de provocar un colapso de tensión; (ii) los protocolos de comunicación entre dispositivos, dada la necesidad de salvaguardar la confidencialidad, veracidad y disponibilidad de la información intercambiada; y (iii) el marco legal, siendo necesario el desarrollo normativo ligado a las infraestructuras críticas.
  • Publication
    The role of the electrical vehicle in sustainable supply chains: a review
    (Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, 2021-02-12) Amaro Verneque, Fernanda Helena; Henrique González, Pedro; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; De Almeida Guimaraes, Vanessa
    Environmental concerns, such as global warming and scarcity of natural resources, pressure companies to develop and adopt cleaner technologies and production processes. Besides, the search for sustainable development (as recommended by Agenda 2030 from the United Nations) has made companies rethink their whole supply chain, including transport activities. Besides, governments have been proposing public policies to obtain positive impacts in the economic, social and environmental dimensions. In this context, many studies have pointed out that electric mobility is a sustainable alternative to the transport sector and, in many EU countries, the government has bet on subsidies to attract manufacturers and customers to this market. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the role of electric vehicles (EV) in sustainable supply chains, considering the articles published in the Web of Science (WoS) database. We realize that there is a low quantity of papers dedicated to investigating the EV in this context. Many papers claim to perform sustainable analysis but do not evaluate the triple bottom line's three dimensions. Nevertheless, we identified that governments had developed policies to incentivize the introduction of electric vehicles in the market.
  • Publication
    A unified adaptive scheme for fault location and relay coordination in Smart Grids
    (IEEE, 2020-06) Alcala, Daniel; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Florez R., Diana M.; Pindado, Santiago
    This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme for distribution networks with distributed generation. The proposed system offers the novelty of being able to both locate the zone in which the fault has occurred and adapt the setting parameters of the relays involved in the process for each network condition. The unified adaptive system can be applied for fault detection in both the main feeder and lateral branches, taking into account the variable conditions of the distributed power generation and power demand. The setting of the relays' parameters responsible for the coordination of the zone protection is done by optimizing three degrees of freedom using mixed-integer nonlinear optimization techniques. The proposed adaptive protection scheme is validated in a standard distribution test feeder to prove its capability to locate faults in both main and lateral branches and optimize the performance of the involved relays under variable generation conditions, different fault types and different fault locations. The adaptive protection scheme reduces relay operating time significantly compared to classical and linear relay techniques.
  • Publication
    Gestión de Congestiones en Redes Eléctricas Inteligentes
    (Grupo Tecma Red S.L., 2016-10-18) Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; González Juárez, Lorena Guadalupe; Rojas Delgado, Brenda Carolina; Della Giustina, Davide; Dede, Alessio; European Commission
    La gestión de congestiones en las redes eléctricas de distribución es una de las operaciones más críticas a las que se enfrentan los operadores de las redes eléctricas inteligentes. En este trabajo el control de congestiones se plantea desde una doble perspectiva que funciona de forma coordinada. Por un lado, se plantea optimizar en tiempo real la operación de los recursos energéticos distribuidos que se encuentran en la red (STATCOM, fuentes de generación distribuida). Y, por otro lado; se plantea la reconfiguración dinámica de la red, mediante la apertura y cierre de los dispositivos de maniobra telecontrolados. El control de congestiones se ha probado en un piloto de una red de demostración inteligente del proyecto Europeo 1DE4L.
  • Publication
    Gestión Óptima de la Generación Distribuida en Smart Grids.
    (Grupo Tecma Red S.L., 2016-10-18) Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Rojas Delgado, Brenda Carolina; Hernández Calleja, Luis
    Las perspectivas energéticas a medio y largo plazo apuntan a un crecimiento de la generación distribuida y el autoconsumo en los próximos años. El desarrollo de estos aspectos requiere, tanto la existencia de un marco regulatorio adecuado, como la aplicación de mecanismos técnicos que permitan optimizar la integración de la generación distribuida en las redes eléctricas de distribución. En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de técnicas de gestión de la generación distribuida basadas en Algoritmos Genéticos ante diversos escenarios de demanda y de generación. Las técnicas de optimización permiten maximizar la penetración de la generación distribuida en la red de distribución manteniendo la estabilidad del sistema eléctrico.
  • Publication
    Control coordinado de tensión en redes eléctricas inteligentes: desarrollo e implementación "hardaware in the loop"
    (Grupo Tecma Red S.L., 2016-10-18) Gonzalez Juarez, Lorena Guadalupe; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Rojas Delgado, Brenda Carolina; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    En este trabajo, se propone un sistema de control coordinado para redes inteligentes a través del uso de la tecnología de operaciones ("Operational Technology") y las TIC. El sistema de control propuesto se estructura en una arquitectura de control jerárquica basándose en una infraestructura de comunicaciones que permite la estimación de la demanda, la estimación de estado, y el control de tensión coordinado de los recursos energéticos distribuidos de la red inteligente. La viabilidad de esta estructura de control se ha implementado experimentalmente en una herramienta de simulación "Hardware-in-the-loop" mediante la plataforma OPAL-RT donde se han implementado los controles locales y el controlador jerárquico.
  • Publication
    Aplicación de la IEC 61850 en un proyecto de demostración de redes eléctricas inteligentes de distribución
    (Grupo Tecma Red S.L., 2016-10-18) Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Vázquez Romero, Ricardo; Hormigo, Maite; Salazar, Fernando; European Commission
    El estándar IEC 61850 se ha aplicado principalmente para el control de subestaciones, comunicación y protección. Pocas son las aplicaciones donde se extiende su rango de operación para cubrir otras funcionalidades necesarias para la operación de redes eléctricas de distribución. En esta comunicación se presenta la arquitectura de automatización de una red de distribución piloto desplegada en el proyecto Europeo 1DE4L donde se ha implementado distintas funciones de operación como por ejemplo: monitorización en tiempo real, estimación del estado de la red, predicción de la demanda y de la generación o el control de congestiones en redes eléctricas de distribución de baja y media tensión.
  • Publication
    Stochastic Technical Losses Analysis of Smart Grids under Uncertain Demand
    (IEEE, 2018-09) Velasco Guerra, Jose Antonio; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Alonso Martínez, Mónica; Miguélez, Mariano; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    Technical losses of smart grids can be computed using the customer's smart meter measurements (active and reactive energy) and the energy measurement registered by the Low Voltage (LV) supervisor deployed at secondary substations. However, in some LV networks, some customers do not provide information regarding the energy consumed and produced in real time. This fact complicates the calculation of technical losses because this information is necessary for estimating the load demand for this subset of customers. In this paper, a stochastic approach is proposed for the estimation of technical losses in smart grids under uncertain load demands (e.g., non-telemetered customers and uncertain smart meters readings). Load demand estimation of non-metered customers was performed by means of a top-down approach. Intra-hour load demand profiles of customers were synthetically generated by applying a Markov process. The data and network used in this process corresponded to the roll-out deployed by the Spanish Research and Development (R&D) demonstration project OSIRIS.
  • Publication
    Optimising Load Flexibility for the Day Ahead in Distribution Networks with Photovoltaics
    (IEEE, 2019-08-26) Velasco Rodríguez, José Ángel; Rigoni, Valenrin; Soroudi, Alireza; Keane, Andrew; Amarís Duarte, Hortensia Elena; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    In this paper a methodology is proposed to calculate the load demand flexibility that could be activated within the next 24-hours for solving the technical impacts of contingencies that may come up in an unbalanced low voltage distribution networks with high penetration of intermittent DG sources. The methodology is formulated within a Demand Response program environment via load shifting as flexibility enabler mechanism. To achieve that, a non-linear optimisation problem is formulated based on an unbalanced optimal power flow, which allows the determination of the load flexibility that each Demand Response customer could provide at the request of the Distribution System Operator. The demand as well as weather conditions are forecasted for the day ahead. The optimisation problem is solved in a sequence fashion, within a daily framework, splitting the whole problem in optimisation blocks. In each block, the flexible load demand is obtained and the load demand forecasting its updated for the upcoming blocks based on the changes in the scheduled load demand. The methodology is applied to a real distribution network with the load data received from the smart metering infrastructure. The results obtained show the strength of the methodology in solving the technical problems of the network under high unbalanced operation.
  • Publication
    Fulfilment of grid code obligations by large offshore wind farms clusters connected via HVDC corridors
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2016-09) Attya, A.B.; Anaya-Lara, O.; Ledesma Larrea, Pablo; Svendsen, H.G.
    The foreseen high penetration levels of wind power will force the systems operators to apply restrictive constraints on wind power plants. The ability of offshore wind clusters, which are connected via HVDC, to fulfill the grid codes, especially those related to voltage stability is investigated. This came in the frame of a project to develop an integrated and practical tool to design offshore wind clusters (EERA-DTOC). The applied case studies examine the system stability during and after severe disturbances, and the compliance with the grid codes. Additionally, this paper explains the applied procedure to utilize the outcomes of Net-OP tool, which proposes an optimized topology to connect the wind power clusters to the interconnected power systems. The integrated simulation environment, namely, PSS/E, is used to implement a highly detailed and dynamic model based on the recommendations of Net-OP tool. The results confirm that wind farm clusters respond to faults and disturbances as desired by the grid codes.
  • Publication
    Synthesis of hourly wind power series using the Moving Block Bootstrap method
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014) Usaola García, Julio
    PMAPS is the leading forum for engineers and scientists worldwide to share and discuss their research on probabilistic and statistical modelling applied to power systems. Durham has been a centre of culture and learning for over 1000 years, and the University is the third oldest in England. The city is centred on the World Heritage Site, which includes the Norman-era Castle and Cathedral (the Castle is a College of the University and the site of the PMAPS relcome reception.) The Durham Energy Institute is a leading cross-disciplinary research energy research institute, with particularly notable activites in power systems risk analysis and the mathematics of energy systems.
  • Publication
    Technical Constraints and Flexibility Markets in Smart Grids
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015) Moreno López de Saá, María Ángeles; Usaola García, Julio
    Technical constraints and flexibility management in smart grids are analyzed using a market based approach. Flexibility services may allow network operators to tackle grid constraints in all timescales, maintaining reliability and quality of service and maximizing integration of distributed energy resources. Here, only short term markets will be considered; consumer and DER flexibility will be used in order to solve the distribution grid constraints (line/transformer overloads or voltage limit violations) in the day-ahead framework. The main contribution of the paper is a proposal of congestion management in smart grids consistent with the wholesale electricity market already in use. The role of the new actors will be highlighted to remark the consequences of regulatory decisions to be taken in the next future.
  • Publication
    An Optimal Scheduling for Aggregators in Smart Grids
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015) Usaola García, Julio; Ayón Flores, Xiaolin Ivonne
    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization method that produces bidding curves to be submitted by an aggregator to the day ahead wholesale markets taking into account the possible imbalance costs as well as the uncertainty of the forecasts (market price, demand and renewable generation for the next day). A formulation is proposed, which yields a linear optimization problem of moderate dimension with short computation times. The result of applying this technique is an increase in revenues of the aggregator from the trading of the resources that it represents. The benefits are assessed, by comparing it with a standard deterministic optimization technique.
  • Publication
    Photovoltaic reactive power limits
    (IEEE, 2013-05) Albarracín Sánchez, Ricardo; Alonso Martínez, Mónica
    Today, Photovoltaic (PV) inverters are working with very small values of reactive power. Then, the Power Factor (PF) is very close to the unit. So, the PV installations only inject active power into the grid. This paper aims to investigate the limits of reactive power capacity in PV generators. In this way, PV generators could be used as a controlled reactive power sources. In this paper, an introduction to the voltage control in photovoltaic generators is described and implemented in Simulink/Matlab and PSS/E.