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  • Publication
    Modelado de un cuello robótico blando mediante aprendizaje automático
    (Comité Español de Automática, 2023-06-01) Continelli Flores, Nicole Andrea; Nagua Cuenca, Luis Fernando; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    En este trabajo se aborda el problema del modelado de un cuello robótico blando mediante el uso de diferentes arquitecturas de redes neuronales, estudiando la influencia en los resultados del número de capas de cada red y de su correspondiente función de activación. Se emplearán las funciones de activación Tangente Hiperbólica (TANH) y Unidad Lineal Exponencial (ELU). Los modelos obtenidos se comparar ́an con un modelo basado en Perceptrón Multicapa (MLP) de parámetros optimizados, así como con el modelo cinemático analítico del cuello. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos demostrar ́an la ventaja del empleo de last ́ecnicas de aprendizaje automático para el modelado de sistemas altamente no lineales como el del cuello robótico blando, cuya característica elástica dificulta la formulación de un modelo analítico robusto.
  • Publication
    sEMG-controlled forearm bracelet and serious game-based rehabilitation for training manual dexterity in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomised controlled trial
    (BCM, 2023-08-19) Marcos Anton, Selena; Jardón Huete, Alberto; Oña Simbaña, Edwin Daniel; Blazquez Fernandez, Aitor; Martinez Rolando, Lidia; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    Background. Muscle strength and dexterity impairments are common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) producing limitations in activities of daily living related to the upper limb (UL). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of serious games specifically developed for the MYO Armband & REG; capture sensor in improving forearm and wrist mobility, UL muscle strength, dexterity, fatigue, functionality, quality of life, satisfaction, adverse effects and compliance. Methods A double-blinded (allocation concealment was performed by a blinded investigator and by blinding for assessors) randomised controlled trial was conducted. The sample was randomised into two groups: an experimental group that received treatment based on UL serious games designed by the research team and controlled by the MYO Armband & REG; gesture capture sensor, along with conventional rehabilitation and a control group that received the same conventional rehabilitation for the UL. Both groups received two 60-min sessions per week over an eight-week period. Wrist range of motion (goniometry), grip muscle strength (Jamar & REG; dynamometer), coordination and gross UL dexterity (Box and Block Test), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), functionality (ABILHAND), quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29), adverse effects (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, SSQ), perceived workload (NASA-Task load index), satisfaction (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8), Satisfaction with Technology Scale, System Usability Scale (SUS) and QUEST 2.0) and compliance (attendance) were assessed in both groups pre-treatment, post-treatment and during a follow-up period of 2 weeks without receiving any treatment. Results Significant differences were observed in the experimental group compared to the control group in the assessment of forearm supination (p = .004) and grip strength (p = .004). Adverse effects were minimal (SSQ: 7/100 points) and perceived workload was low (NASA-Task Load Index: 25/100 points) in the experimental group. The MYO Armband & REG; technology proved to be useful for the participants (SUS: 80.66/100) and the satisfaction scales received high scores (QUEST 2.0: 59.4/70 points; Satisfaction with Technology: 84.36/100 points). There were significant differences between the groups in terms of attendance percentage (p = .029). Conclusions An experimental protocol using MYO Armband & REG;-based serious games designed for UL rehabilitation showed improvements in active wrist range of motion and handgrip strength in patients with MS, with high satisfaction, minimal adverse effects and workload and excellent compliance.Trial registration number: This randomised controlled trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04171908.
  • Publication
    Gaussian process regression for forward and inverse kinematics of a soft robotic arm
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2023-11-01) Relaño Gibert, Carlos; Muñoz Mendi, Javier; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    The use of soft robotics to perform tasks and interact with the environment requires good system identification. Data-driven methods offer a promising alternative where traditional analytical model-based techniques have proven insufficient. However, their use has been limited and under-explored in soft robotics. The novelty of this research lies in the application of Gaussian processes to soft robotics and the exploration of approximate Gaussian processes (AGP) and deep Gaussian processes (DGP) methods. It highlights the advantages of Gaussian processes in modeling uncertainty, incorporating prior knowledge, and handling complex systems. This is achieved through the identification of the forward and inverse kinematics of a two-degree-of-freedom soft robotic arm actuated by three tendons. A comparison is made between different configurations using Gaussian processes and the results are also compared with those obtained from the analytical model of the kinematics and an artificial neural network (ANN). The research contributes to the development of more efficient and accurate techniques for system identification, kinematics modeling, and control in soft robotics.
  • Publication
    2014 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots: [society news]
    (IEEE, 2015-05-16) Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos
    Presents information on the 2014 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots.
  • Publication
    On Fractional PIlambda Controllers: Some Tuning Rules for Robustness to Plant Uncertainties
    (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004-12-01) Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Calderón, Antonio J.; Vinagre, Blas M.; Chen, Yangquan; Feliu, Vicente
    The objective of this work is to find out optimum settings for a fractional PIlambda controller in order to fulfill three different robustness specifications of design for the compensated system, taking advantage of the fractional order, lambda. Since this fractional controller has one parameter more than the conventional PI controller, one more specification can be fulfilled, improving the performance of the system and making it more robust to plant uncertainties, such as gain and time constant changes. For the tuning of the controller an iterative optimization method has been used, based on a nonlinear function minimization. Two real examples of application are presented and simulation results are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of this kind of unconventional controllers.
  • Publication
    Non-Contact, Simple Neonatal Monitoring by Photoplethysmography
    (MDPI, 2018-12-10) Cobos Torres, Juan Carlos; Abderrahim Fichouche, Mohamed; Martinez Orgado, Jose
    This paper presents non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonates, based on image processing, where a standard color camera captures the plethysmographic signal and the heart and breathing rates are processed and estimated online. It is important that the measurements are taken in a non-invasive manner, which is imperceptible to the patient. Currently, many methods have been proposed for non-contact measurement. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been possible to identify methods with low computational costs and a high tolerance to artifacts. With the aim of improving contactless measurement results, the proposed method based on the computer vision technique is enhanced to overcome the mentioned drawbacks. The camera is attached to an incubator in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and a single area in the neonate's diaphragm is monitored. Several factors are considered in the stages of image acquisition, as well as in the plethysmographic signal formation, pre-filtering and filtering. The pre-filter step uses numerical analysis techniques to reduce the signal offset. The proposed method decouples the breath rate from the frequency of sinus arrhythmia. This separation makes it possible to analyze independently any cardiac and respiratory dysrhythmias. Nine newborns were monitored with our proposed method. A Bland-Altman analysis of the data shows a close correlation of the heart rates measured with the two approaches (correlation coefficient of 0.94 for heart rate (HR) and 0.86 for breath rate (BR)) with an uncertainty of 4.2 bpm for HR and 4.9 for BR (k = 1). The comparison of our method and another non-contact method considered as a standard independent component analysis (ICA) showed lower central processing unit (CPU) usage for our method (75% less CPU usage).
  • Publication
    Automatic outcome in manual dexterity assessment using colour segmentation and nearest neighbour classifier
    (MDPI, 2018-08-31) Oña Simbaña, Edwin Daniel; Sánchez Herrera, Patricia; Cuesta Gomez, Alicia; Martínez de la Casa Díaz, Santiago; Jardón Huete, Alberto; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España); Comunidad de Madrid
    Objective assessment of motor function is an important component to evaluating the effectiveness of a rehabilitation process. Such assessments are carried out by clinicians using traditional tests and scales. The Box and Blocks Test (BBT) is one such scale, focusing on manual dexterity evaluation. The score is the maximum number of cubes that a person is able to displace during a time window. In a previous paper, an automated version of the Box and Blocks Test using a Microsoft Kinect sensor was presented, and referred to as the Automated Box and Blocks Test (ABBT). In this paper, the feasibility of ABBT as an automated tool for manual dexterity assessment is discussed. An algorithm, based on image segmentation in CIELab colour space and the Nearest Neighbour (NN) rule, was developed to improve the reliability of automatic cube counting. A pilot study was conducted to assess the hand motor function in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Three functional assessments were carried out. The success rate in automatic cube counting was studied by comparing the manual (BBT) and the automatic (ABBT) methods. The additional information provided by the ABBT was analysed to discuss its clinical significance. The results show a high correlation between manual (BBT) and automatic (ABBT) scoring. The lowest average success rate in cube counting for ABBT was 92%. Additionally, the ABBT acquires extra information from the cubes' displacement, such as the average velocity and the time instants in which the cube was detected. The analysis of this information can be related to indicators of health status (coordination and dexterity). The results showed that the ABBT is a useful tool for automating the assessment of unilateral gross manual dexterity, and provides additional information about the user's performance.
  • Publication
    UAVs mission planning with imposition of flight level through fast marching square
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25) González Pacheco, Víctor; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Moreno Lorente, Luis Enrique; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Comunidad de Madrid
    Many proposed activities to be carried out by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in urban environments require a control over the altitude for different purposes. Energy saving and minimization of costs are some of these objectives. This work presents a method to impose a flight level in a mission planning carried out by a UAV in a 3D urban environment. The planning avoids all obstacles encountered in the environment and maintains a fixed flight level in the majority of the trajectory. The method used as planner is the Fast Marching Square (FM2) method, which includes two adjustment parameters. Depending on the values of these parameters, it is possible to introduce into the planning an altitude constraint, as well as to modify the smoothness of the trajectory and the safety margins from the obstacles. Several simulated experiments have been carried out in different situations obtaining very good results.
  • Publication
    UAVs mission planning with flight level constraint using Fast Marching Square Method
    (Elsevier, 2017-08-01) González Pérez, Verónica; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Moreno Lorente, Luis Enrique; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Comunidad de Madrid
    In the last decade, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been a research focus for many purposes. Many of these studies require a path planning to perform autonomous flights, as well as the maintenance of a fixed flight level with respect to the ground to capture videos or overlying images. This article presents an approach to plan a mission for UAVs keeping a fixed flight level constraint. The 3D environment where the planning is carried out is an open field with non-uniform terrain. The approach proposed is based on the Fast Marching Square (FM ) method, which generates a path free from obstacles. Our approach includes two adjustment parameters. Depending on the values of these parameters, the restriction of flight level can be modified, as well as the smoothness and safety of the generated paths. Simulated experiments carried out in this work demonstrate that the proposed approach generates trajectories respecting a fixed flight level over the ground with successful results.
  • Publication
    Fractional Control of a Humanoid Robot Reduced Model with Model Disturbances
    (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-15) González-Fierro Palacios, Miguel; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    There is an open discussion between those who defend mass-distributed models for humanoid robots and those in favor of simple concentrated models. Even though each of them has its advantages and disadvantages, little research has been conducted analyzing the control performance due to the mismatch between the model and the real robot, and how the simplifications affect the controller's output. In this article we address this problem by combining a reduced model of the humanoid robot, which has an easier mathematical formulation and implementation, with a fractional order controller, which is robust to changes in the model parameters. This controller is a generalization of the well-known proportional-integral-derivative (PID) structure obtained from the application of Fractional Calculus for control, as will be discussed in this article. This control strategy guarantees the robustness of the system, minimizing the effects from the assumption that the robot has a simple mass distribution. The humanoid robot is modeled and identified as a triple inverted pendulum and, using a gain scheduling strategy, the performances of a classical PID controller and a fractional order PID controller are compared, tuning the controller parameters with a genetic algorithm.
  • Publication
    Incorporation of fractional-order dynamics into an existing PI/PID DC motor control loop
    (Elsevier, 2016-01-01) Tepljakov, Aleksei; González, Emmanuel A.; Petlenkov, Eduard; Belikov, Jun; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia; Petrás, Ivo
    The problem of changing the dynamics of an existing DC motor control system without the need of making internal changes is considered in the paper. In particular, this paper presents a method for incorporating fractional-order dynamics in an existing DC motor control system with internal PI or PID controller, through the addition of an external controller into the system and by tapping its original input and output signals. Experimental results based on the control of a real test plant from MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented, indicating the validity of the proposed approach.
  • Publication
    Implementation of Explosion Safety Regulations in Design of a Mobile Robot for Coal Mines
    (MDPI, 2018-11-19) Novac, Petr; Kot, Tomas; Konecny, Zdenek; Moczulski, Wojciech; Rodriguez Lopez, Angel
    The article focuses on specific challenges of the design of a reconnaissance mobile robotic system aimed for inspection in underground coal mine areas after a catastrophic event. Systems that are designated for these conditions must meet specific standards and regulations. In this paper is discussed primarily the main conception of meeting explosion safety regulations of European Union 2014/34/EU (also called ATEX-from French "Appareils destines a etre utilises en ATmospheres Explosives") for Group I (equipment intended for use in underground mines) and Category M1 (equipment designed for operation in the presence of an explosive atmosphere). An example of a practical solution is described on main subsystems of the mobile robot TeleRescuera teleoperated robot with autonomy functions, a sensory subsystem with multiple cameras, three-dimensional (3D) mapping and sensors for measurement of gas concentration, airflow, relative humidity, and temperatures. Explosion safety is ensured according to the Technical Report CLC/TR 60079-33 "s" by two main independent protections-mechanical protection (flameproof enclosure) and electrical protection (automatic methane detector that disconnects power when methane breaches the enclosure and gets inside the robot body).
  • Publication
    A review of robotics in neurorehabilitation: towards an automated process for upper limb.
    (Hindawi, 2018-04-01) Oña Simbaña, Edwin Daniel; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Sanchez-Herrera, P.; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Jardon Huete, Alberto; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España); Comunidad de Madrid
    Robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a growing field that seeks to incorporate advances in robotics combined with neuroscience and rehabilitation to define new methods for treating problems related with neurological diseases. In this paper, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the contribution of robotics for upper limb neurorehabilitation, highlighting its relation with the rehabilitation cycle, and to clarify the prospective research directions in the development of more autonomous rehabilitation processes. With this aim, first, a study and definition of a general rehabilitation process are made, and then, it is particularized for the case of neurorehabilitation, identifying the components involved in the cycle and their degree of interaction between them. Next, this generic process is compared with the current literature in robotics focused on upper limb treatment, analyzing which components of this rehabilitation cycle are being investigated. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to obtain more autonomous rehabilitation processes are discussed. In addition, based on this study, a series of technical requirements that should be taken into account when designing and implementing autonomous robotic systems for rehabilitation is presented and discussed.
  • Publication
    Social robotics in therapy of apraxia of speech
    (2018-03-11) Castillo Montoya, José Carlos; Álvarez Fernández, Diego; Alonso Martín, Fernando; Marqués Villarroya, Sara; Salichs Sánchez-Caballero, Miguel; Comunidad de Madrid
    Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder in which messages from the brain to the mouth are disrupted, resulting in an inability for moving lips or tongue to the right place to pronounce sounds correctly. Current therapies for this condition involve a therapist that in one-on-one sessions conducts the exercises. Our aim is to work in the line of robotic therapies in which a robot is able to perform partially or autonomously a therapy session, endowing a social robot with the ability of assisting therapists in apraxia of speech rehabilitation exercises. Therefore, we integrate computer vision and machine learning techniques to detect the mouth pose of the user and, on top of that, our social robot performs autonomously the different steps of the therapy using multimodal interaction.
  • Publication
    Adaptive Aid on Targeted Manipulator Movements in Tele-Assistance
    (De Gruyter Open, 2016-08-12) Stoelen, Martín Fodstad; Fernández de Tejada Mendiola, Virginia; Jardón Huete, Alberto; Bonsignorio, Fabio; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    The teleoperation of robot manipulators over the internet suffers from variable delays in the communications. Here we address a tele-assistance scenario, where a remote operator assists a disabled or elderly user on daily life tasks. Our behavioral approach uses local environment information from robot sensing to help enable faster execution for a given movement tolerance. This is achieved through a controller that automatically slows the operator down before having collisions, using a set of distributed proximity sensors. The controller is made to gradually increase the assistance in situations similar to those where ollisions have occurred in the past, thus adapting to the given operator, robot and task-set. Two controlled virtual experiments for tele-assistance with a 5 DOF manipulator were performed, with 300 ms and 600 ms mean variable round-trip delays. The results showed significant improvements in the median times of 12.6% and 16.5%, respectively. Improvements in the subjective workload were also seen with the controller. A first implementation on a physical robot manipulator is described.
  • Publication
    Sistema Avanzado de Protipado Rápido para Control en la Educación en Ingeniería para grupos Multidisciplinares
    (Elsevier España, S.L.U, 2016-08-01) Flores Caballero, Antonio; Copaci, Dorin Sabin; Villoslada Peciña, Álvaro; Blanco Rojas, María Dolores; Moreno Lorente, Luis Enrique; Comunidad de Madrid
    Con el objetivo de alcanzar resultados satisfactorios en la enseñanza y puesta en práctica de cursos semestrales de ingeniería de control, en los que la presencia de alumnos de distintas disciplinas es más que notoria, se torna necesario recurrir a altos niveles de abstracción en la programación de los sistemas de control. Este alto nivel de abstracción procede del uso de un sistema de prototipado rápido para control de carácter avanzado, que permite recurrir a funcionalidades que no habían sido previstas en ningún entorno de prototipado rápido para control disponible con anterioridad. El carácter avanzado del sistema brinda soluciones desde el más alto nivel de abstracción, el denominado diseño basado en modelos, para las intricadas relaciones necesarias entre la ingeniería de control y la informática en tiempo real, permitiendo que los alumnos puedan centrar su esfuerzo en el desarrollo del algoritmo de control, la identificación de sistemas y el modelado de plantas físicas en lugar de preocuparse por las tediosas tareas de gestión y configuración a bajo nivel de la arquitectura hardware que están empleando. Gracias a este alto nivel de abstracción, que cubre el espectro abarcado por funcionalidades de muy bajo nivel y funcionalidades de muy alto nivel, el manejo del sistema propuesto se encuentra al alcance de audiencias multidisciplinares. El sistema avanzado de prototipado rápido para control se está empleando para cursos semestrales así como en multitud de Tesis de Máster y Doctorales.
  • Publication
    Control desacoplado de un actuador de rigidez variable para robots asistenciales
    (Universitat Politècnica de València, 2016-03) Medina Hernández, José; Jardón Huete, Alberto; Balaguer Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    Los actuadores de rigidez variable son dispositivos que permiten cambiar la posición y rigidez articular de un robot en forma simultánea. En los últimos años se han diseñado y desarrollado muchos dispositivos de este tipo, con la esperanza de favorecer la seguridad en la interacción humano-robot y mejorar el rendimiento dinámico de los robots. En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador para un actuador de rigidez variable de configuración serie. La estrategia de control se basa en la linealización por realimentación y el ajuste de dos controladores lineales. Esta estrategia permite el seguimiento de referencias de posición y rigidez articular de forma simultánea y desacoplada. Además, se realizan simulaciones en las que se incorpora este dispositivo dentro del robot asistencial ASIBOT, a fin de evaluar el desempeño del controlador, los cambios en la dinámica del robot y las posibles ventajas que tendrá la inclusión del mismo a nivel de seguridad en la interacción física humano-robot.
  • Publication
    Muestreo adaptativo aplicado a la robótica: Revisión del estado de la técnica
    (Universitat Politècnica de València, 2017-06) Pastor, Ignacio; Pereira Valente, Joao Ricardo
    En este artículo se presenta la revisión de una técnica de muestreo de especial interés para aplicaciones a sistemas robóticos dedicados a la teledetección. Esta técnica es conocida como muestreo adaptativo. En este artículo se realiza una recopilación de las principales técnicas de muestreo adaptativo aplicados a la robótica, haciendo uso de la planificación de trayectorias. Finalmente, se destaca un conjunto de proyectos actualmente en desarrollo, sobre aplicaciones reales de la técnica de muestreo adaptativo en la robótica.
  • Publication
    Decision making in dynamic information environments
    (IBERAMIA, 2017-06-01) Oliveira, Tiago; Castillo Montoya, José Carlos; Novais, Paulo; Satoh, Ken
    If there is no knowledge about the state of the world, getting the appropriate response to an event becomes impossible. Situations of uncertainty are common in the most varied environments and have the potential to impair or even stop the decision-making process. Thus, reaching an outcome in such situations requires the development of decision frameworks that account for missing, contradictory or uncertain information.
  • Publication
    A review on intelligent monitoring and activity interpretation
    (IBERAMIA, 2017-06-01) Castillo Montoya, José Carlos; Fernández Caballero, Antonio; Lopez, Maria Teresa; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    This survey paper provides a tour of the various monitoring and activity interpretation frameworks found in the literature. The needs of monitoring and interpretation systems are presented in relation to the area where they have been developed or applied. Their evolution is studied to better understand the characteristics of current systems. After this, the main features of monitoring and activity interpretation systems are defined.