Trabajos Fin de Grado Escuela Politécnica Superior

Permanent URI for this collection

Archivo Abierto Institucional de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid:Trabajos Fin de Grado Escuela Politécnica Superior

Esta colección contiene los Trabajos Fin de Grado (TFGs) correspondientes a estudios de grados en ingeniería, tras la implantación del EEES, presentados en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, cuyos autores y directores/tutores han autorizado su depósito en acceso abierto.

También es posible acceder a los TFGs desde el Buscador de la biblioteca. Si los autores y directores del Trabajo no han autorizado expresamente el depósito del mismo en e-archivo, el acceso a su texto completo será restringido y requerirá la previa validación del usuario en Campus Global (sólo miembros de la UC3M).


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 3007
  • Publication
    Modelling and simulation of a continuous beer production plant using Simulink
    (2021-06) Monte Sastre, Enrique; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Mecánica de Medios Continuos y Teoría de Estructuras; García Llorente, Mario
    Beer is traditionally batch produced. However, there has been always an interest to make this process continuous, due to its economic and also environmental benefits. In this project, a continuous brewing plant model has been developed from already published batch models. In particular, this model considers and links mashing and fermentation steps. For it, already existing forefront brewing technologies have been used as inspiration. The conversion has been performed by placing tanks in cascade for mashing and for fermentation, and by using the chemostat concept. The results allows not only to study the system behaviour but also to provide design parameters. Besides, and overview of the brewing process and of continuous brewing developments, advantages and disadvantages is exposed.
  • Publication
    Design of parabolic-trough reflectors for rooftop installation
    (2021) Llanos Mayorga, Pablo de; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos; Gómez Hernández, Jesús
    Parabolic-trough collectors (PTCs) are the best established thermal technology to take advantage of sun radiation to heat a working fluid (HTF). Despite the vast literature on the subject, most of the efforts have been devoted to analysing large-sized PTC solar fields for electricity generation plants. The aim of this work is to study and design a small PTC which could be placed on an industrial rooftop of limited area and be used in a thermal-related application (e.g., milk sterilization process). Thus, the main elements of the PTC technology (e.g., reflector, receiver) were described, dimensionized, and compared to real commercial PTC examples. To model the sun’s heat concentration on the receiver, an optical analysis was carried out using MATLAB to compute the geometric ratio (𝐶𝑔), which was validated using SolTrace, a raytracing software that models real photon interactions. Later, a second script of MATLAB based on a numerical method was developed to obtain the temperature profiles and heat fluxes of pressurized water and Therminol VP-1 in different scenarios. Finally, an example of a solar field was dimensioned and cost-analysed, exploring the viability of installing distinct PTC models at a lower scale, and replacing fossil fuel cogeneration of the current system with the carbon footprint that it implies.
  • Publication
    Photoelectric characterization of solar cells based on III-V semiconductors
    (2021-09) Gómez Gámez, Natalia; UC3M. Departamento de Física; García-Tabarés Valdivieso, Elisa
    This bachelor thesis is focused on the theoretical background study and its subsequent experimental application of solar cells based on III-V semiconductors with the aim of understanding the relationship between the band-gap of the materials and their electrical performance (i.e. quantum efficiency). Furthermore, the effect of the material’s properties on the quantum efficiency is analysed, with the aim of optimizing the parameters to improve the efficiency of future solar devices. These III-V semiconductors that have excellent properties and different ranges of band-gap are connected in series forming multi-junction solar cells. Thus, the light that is not absorbed by the upper layers is absorbed in the lower layers, so with this type of cells the fitting of the solar devices to the solar spectrum is improved. Through the characterization of the tested III-V solar cells using a spectral response measurement equipment, it was proved that as the band-gap energy decreases, the quantum efficiency increases as does the absorption of light wavelengths available, so the greater the energy of the band-gap, the smaller the efficiencies reached. A different approach for a potential increase of the solar cell efficiency is also described and used during this project. This approach is based on a simulation tool. Thanks to those simulations, the effect of different modular parameters on the performance of the devices has been studied and the obtained results can be applied in the manufacture of future devices. Moreover, this study can be used as a feedback tool for upcoming experimental research.
  • Publication
    Electric Vehicle charging through a photovoltaic car park connected to the grid
    (2021-06-24) Gutiérrez Tovar, Natalia; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos; Rodríguez Sánchez, María de los Reyes
    This project examines the possibility and potential efficacy of a photovoltaic car park, whose intentions include the charging of electric vehicles and partial supply of power to a supermarket. The project will provide an in-depth look at the overall plant design as well as an analysis of the electric material necessary for such an installation. Once the project´s objectives are determined, introductions to the photovoltaic energy and electric vehicle markets are made, providing context of the current situation. The environmental and socioeconomical impact that the installation may imply is also covered within the project. Afterwards, the placement of the facility is decided by carefully comparing the characteristics of the supermarket´s nearby locations. With the location settled, there will be two case studies, CASE 1 and 2, for the charging of electric vehicles: a photovoltaic plant connected to the grid in self-consumption mode without discharge to the distribution network, and a photovoltaic plant connected to the grid in self-consumption mode with a storage system and without discharge to the distribution network, respectively. Many factors are taken into consideration for the development of the two cases, including the variety of potential equipment to be used, the structure used to hold the photovoltaic modules and the optimal conditions for the generation of PV energy. In order to achieve the most suitable elements for the installation, the optimal arrangement of the modules and inverters and the magnitudes of the electrical equipment and materials are calculated. With the results obtained from the calculations and simulations of both CASE 1 and 2, the efficiency of both photovoltaic circuits is contrasted, and an economic analysis is completed. Finally, a conclusion section will be included to gauge whether or not the project would be a successful undertaking. The main conclusion reached is that it is possible to use photovoltaic energy to support the general sources of high-capacity commercial buildings. This achieves future economic benefit through a sustainable project, since CO2 emissions and other harmful elements that negatively affect climate change are significantly reduced, and contributes to the goal of substantially increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy matrix.
  • Publication
    Design of a photovoltaic solar pumping system for drinking water supply in the municipality of La Libertad (El Salvador)
    (2021-06-23) Cuéllar Espina, María; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos; Soria Verdugo, Antonio
    The project being drawn up aims to determine the possibilities of supplying drinking water to communities located in isolated areas and with scarce economic resources in countries located in Central America using photovoltaic solar as a source of energy supply. The chosen site of the project will be the community of Miramar located in the municipality of La Libertad belonging to El Salvador. In the project, a description of the different types of renewable energy that currently exist, and in a particular way, the operation of photovoltaic solar energy will be explained, with an exposition of how this type of energy is currently in the world and in El Salvador. The drafted project basically consists of the definition and dimensioning of a system for pumping water from a well to a reservoir to supply the Miramar community using a photovoltaic solar installation as a source of energy for the pump motor. In such a way that, considering the population of the Miramar community and its twenty-year projection, its water needs will be calculated based on the operating hours of the pump motor, according to the peak hours of the most unfavorable month at the project site, and taking into account the manometric height of the pumping, the required pump motor will be dimensioned. Once the pump motor has been selected, first exposing the different types of pumping that can be used and the reasons for the choice made, the photovoltaic installation is dimensioned. Likewise, the different components of the photovoltaic installation are described, such as: the solar panels, their configuration, and the inverter conversion of the generated direct current to alternating current, with the definition of their technical characteristics, and a theoretical explanation of the electricity generation through photovoltaic panels and its mechanical transformation in the pumping system. Finally, an analysis of the investment of the project is carried out that allows water to be pumped from a well to a deposit in isolated areas, such as the Miramar community in El Salvador, where there is no possibility of connection to the grid, using due to that, photovoltaic solar energy. It concludes with a list of advantages and disadvantages of this type of solution to address the problem of supplying water from a well to isolated populations by pumping them, without connection to the electric grid, and having scarce economic resources.
  • Publication
    Solar integration in a district heating and cooling network
    (2020) Esteban Provencio, Marta; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos; Marugán Cruz, Carolina
    The purpose of this project is to perform an analysis of the feasibility of integrating solar energy into a district network, that supplies the demand of the domestic hot water, space heating and cooling. The project is divided into two main parts: the first part makes an exposition of the district networks, their situation in Spain, as well as the main solar heating and cooling systems and their components. The second part is the case of study where the district network is defined and the performance of the solar installation model are analysed, as well as the most significant elements that make up the system are presented.
  • Publication
    Analysis of the techno-economic viability of a solar wind hybrid power plant
    (2021) Baquedano Aísa, María; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica; Alonso-Martínez de las Morenas, Jaime Manuel; Talayero Navales, Ana Patricia
    The transition towards an electricity system based on renewable energies leads the battle to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions already reflected in the 2015 Paris Agreement, and it is a key line of action to comply with the international commitment to deal with the social, economic and environmental challenges of globalization, the 2030 horizon. Given the fossil fuels depletion and their polluting effect, renewable energy sources are today a clean, sustainable and inexhaustible generation alternative, where wind and photovoltaic energy, two of the most competitive renewable technologies, play a fundamental role. In Spain, single-resource renewable generation plants, such as a solar field or a wind farm, are fundamental to the modern renewable energy economy, especially in the context of one of the countries in Europe with the most people living in condominium, a housing typology that creates more barriers for the implementation of distributed generation systems in the cities. An important problem as the penetration of wind and photovoltaic energy increases lies in their intermittency, since this energy is conditioned by wind and solar resources, subject to variation in climate and time, which makes it difficult to integrate the electrical production of these sources in the electricity management and distribution system. A tool that is presented as effective to deal with this problem resides in solar wind hybrid power plants, based on the space-time complementarity of wind and solar resources. These facilities seek a less intermittent and more optimized power generation, thus supporting the reliability, profitability and stability of the network system. The design of individual solar and wind power plants involves a large number of design variables, constraints and complex physical factors, so this new paradigm creates an opportunity for the development of new integrated design approaches in which the knowledge of the resources and technologies, as well as the regulatory framework, will be essential.
  • Publication
    Estudio autoconsumo colectivo y comunidades energéticas para la reducción de la pobreza energética en dos barrios de Getafe
    (2021-07-12) Parreño Rodríguez, Adelaida; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica; Chinchilla Sánchez, Mónica
    El estudio realizado expone el esclarecimiento y análisis de las comunidades energéticas en la actualidad, además del estudio realizado para la reducción de la pobreza energética con la implantación de una comunidad energética. Tras el estudio comparativo entre la producción de energía de cuatro edificios municipales en Getafe para la selección de uno de ellos como productor energético. La comunidad energética con autoconsumo colectivo final cuenta con una instalación de 95kWp ubicada en la cubierta del Centro Cívico Margaritas. Un 77% de la potencia instalada es para 100 viviendas y el resto es para cubrir el 60% de las necesidades del edificio municipal. Las 100 viviendas están compuestas por cuatro perfiles distintos de consumo de energía horario anual, a las que les corresponden dos paneles por vivienda. Dos de ellos son de perfiles de datos reales no vulnerables, una de PVPC y otra perteneciente al mercado libre. Tendrán una cuota mensual de 5,3€/mes, con lo que el 77% de la inversión inicial que tienen asignada las 100 viviendas, estará amortizada en 15 años y una vez terminado ese plazo la cuota mensual se suprimirá. Las 30 viviendas restantes son consideradas de pobreza energética y no se les cobrará la cuota mensual Estas viviendas que cuentan con dos perfiles distintos, vivienda con 2 personas y vivienda con 4, ambas de tarifa PVPC, se les reduce la factura eléctrica en comparación a sin autoconsumo, (teniendo en cuenta la tarifa vigente de PVPC desde el 1 de junio de 2021) en 15,69 €/mes en el caso del perfil de la vivienda de 2 convivientes y 16,4€/ mes si se trata del perfil de la vivienda de 4 personas. La divulgación del modelo realizado al igual que el conocimiento de las comunidades energéticas será divulgado a los posibles participantes mediante centros formativos, información divulgativa, participación en talleres o cualquier otro medio que sea facilitador de la propuesta.
  • Publication
    Configuración de un robot asistencial y desarrollo de una interfaz accesible para personas mayores: pregón de eventos
    (2021-02) Hurtado Notario, Antonio; UC3M. Departamento de Informática; Iglesias Maqueda, Ana María
    El presente documento se corresponde con la labor de investigación realizada en el campo de la geriatría, y, más concretamente, en la integración de robótica asistencial en residencias de ancianos. Se pretende lograr una introducción absoluta en el ámbito de las residencias de ancianos y en su ‘modus operandi’ con el fin de conocer en detalle y, desde dentro, las necesidades que se puedan llegar a tener en estos lugares, así como los problemas para los cuales la robótica asistencial pueda suponer una solución real. El motivo principal por el que los proyectos enfocados a la asistencia automatizada en residencias de ancianos están experimentando un creciente aumento de demanda es por la previsión científicamente comprobada del envejecimiento poblacional que tendremos en las próximas décadas. Esta estadística supone una enorme oportunidad laboral para las empresas encargadas del desarrollo y manufactura de este tipo de sistemas, ya que, el número de integrantes en residencias aumentará considerablemente en los próximos años y, con la introducción de estos robots asistentes en ellas, se conseguirá atender las necesidades de todos ellos y equilibrar la proporción entre ancianos ingresados y medios necesarios para atenderlos. Una vez que se tiene claro el objetivo, se estudia cuidadosamente el cliente al que irá destinado el proyecto con el fin de adaptarse de la mejor manera posible a sus necesidades y exigencias. En este caso, los usuarios principales de la robótica asistencial en residencias serán los ancianos, asistentes y médicos, por lo cual, el robot ha de incorporar en cada una de sus funcionalidades la mayor cantidad de accesibilidad posible para hacer que la interacción humano-robot sea lo más fructífera que se pueda. La accesibilidad de las interfaces de usuario del robot se constituye como uno de los pilares fundamentales en el desarrollo de este proyecto, junto con otros puntos como el movimiento controlado del robot por las diferentes estancias del mapa sobre el que se desplaza, el cual sería otro de los puntos más importantes del mismo. En definitiva, la finalidad última de este proyecto será el diseño de una interfaz accesible que se ajuste a la diversidad funcional y sensorial de las personas de la tercera edad para que, a través de colores vivos, formatos y tamaños de letra adecuados y estilos intuitivos, se consiga transmitir de manera clara y concisa el mensaje que se quiere transmitir. De esta manera, se crearán vínculos entre el usuario y el robot que harán que los ancianos disfruten de su estancia en la residencia y que supondrán una descarga de trabajo considerable para las personas al cargo de estos ancianos.
  • Publication
    Design and development of an interface for the remote control of a DC motor
    (2021) Martín Díaz, Alicia; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería de Sistemas y Automática; Monje Micharet, Concepción Alicia
    Remote laboratories have been gaining popularity since their first appearance two decades ago as an alternative to hands on laboratories. They present numerous advantages for universities such as lower costs and flexibility, meanwhile, maintaining the benefits of dealing with real systems that virtual laboratories do not present. In this bachelor thesis, an interface to interact in remote with a DC motor, that can be used as a laboratory session was developed. A full stack application using HTML, CSS, JavaScript and Python languages was implemented. The front end of the application is a web page with real time graphs and a video feed with low latency. The back end includes a web server that attends the requests from the user, via web sockets, and performs the control loop for the motor, as well as managing the camera. The hardware of the platform was selected after a detailed research, advantages and disadvantages of potential elements alternatives will be explained. The platform also incorporates designed and printed 3D pieces. The system was successfully identified using Python and MATLABs code and its response in velocity and position is simulated with Simulink Tool.
  • Publication
    VCSEL based optical-fiber Interrogation design for sensing in CubeSats
    (2021-03-02) Ansia Dibuja, Daniel; UC3M. Departamento de Tecnología Electrónica; García Souto, José Antonio
    For this Bachelor’s thesis, a compact and independent system for performing tunable laser diode spectroscopy in a CubeSat nanosatellite has been designed. The system is modulated in alternating current and works tuning a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and using both electromagnetic absorption and dispersion for the purpose of measuring on the device under test, which would be a gas cell or a fiber sensor. Specific design principles were applied to this project, namely, power efficiency, compliance with the ROHS rules, optimization of its size, COTS usage, AC modulation, single supply as well as the CubeSat specifications. This thesis is under the umbrella of the NANOSTAR Project. The system designed can be tuned within a range of 9 nm and automatically calibrate its emission wavelength through the usage of an HCN reference cell. It is able to perform a full-range sweep or tune specific wavelengths for a fast measurement. This project includes the characterization, design and simulation of the system composed by photonic, electronic and optoelectronic components. Its implementation includes the design and assembly of a prototype as well as its control software and resolution and error calculations. The prototype is completely autonomous and only requires a DC power supply in order to recharge its batteries as well as communication with its controller board.
  • Publication
    Análisis automático de datos abiertos de movilidad
    (2022-09-08) Hernando Vinuesa, Álvaro; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Muñoz Organero, Mario
    Nos encontramos en un punto en el que la tecnología nos permite crear dispositivos inteligentes, lo que conlleva una generación de datos que por sí solos pueden no aportarnos la información deseada. Es por este motivo que es necesario realizar un análisis y procesado de los datos, ya que de esta manera serán más útiles para el estudio o aplicación que se quiera desarrollar. Este proyecto se centra en el análisis de un conjunto de datos pertenecientes a BiciMAD, el servicio público de bicicletas eléctricas de Madrid, con el fin de procesarlos para entrenar varios modelos de predicción en función del tiempo, el espacio y el tipo de día (laborable o festivo). Todo el proyecto se basa en el lenguaje de programación Python. Entre los métodos de análisis y técnicas empleadas, destaca el uso de la librería Pandas para el procesado de los datos, y modelos de regresión pertenecientes a la librería scikit-learn, como Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) o K Nearest Neighbors (KNN), para la predicción de datos. Se concluye afirmando que el diseño realizado cumple los objetivos marcados respecto a los conjuntos finales de datos, sin embargo, los modelos de regresión no han sido tan eficaces como se esperaba de ellos.
  • Publication
    Experimental evaluation of robot operating systems in distributed teleoperated scenarios
    (2022-09) Moreno Laguna, Blas; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Bernardos Cano, Carlos Jesús; Costa-Pérez, Xavier
    The Robot Operating System (ROS) has been developed as an open-source framework consisting of multiple libraries and tools to facilitate the design and development of robot applications and components. Despite the significant benefits introduced by its modular design, ROS suffers several drawbacks, including meeting real-time latency and throughput constraints in non ideal-networking conditions, and on scalability in multirobot deployments. To address these issues, a new version of ROS, dubbed as ROS 2, has been recently released. ROS 2 benefits from several innovations, including Data Distribution Service (DDS) and to enhance real-time communication features. While ROS 2 may provide better performances in most of today’s realistic robotic deployment, a constrained battery capacity still represent a major drawback in robotic applications, specially those characterized by heavy computing of multiple data sources such as video-analytics and machine-learning. In this context, 5G mobile networks as well as edge/cloud computing paradigm offer the possibility to offload energy-demanding computational tasks, such as Machine-Learning (ML) and video processing, to nearby infrastructure, relieving the computational burden of the robots and increasing their operational time. In this thesis, we investigate the behavior of ROS and ROS 2 robotic application focusing on remote teleoperated scenarios, comparing their performances in centralized and distributed deployments, i.e., when processing is executed on the robot, or supported by edge/cloud platforms by means of wireless communication. As a result, we provide an exhaustive analysis of the generated traffic load exploiting a virtualized environment, taking advantage of the measurement capabilities that such a controlled scenario provides. Clearly, a trade-off exists between computational power, networking usage, and battery consumption. Therefore, we consider these aspects and provide a numerical evaluation characterizing the benefits of distributed systems over centralized ones, also exploiting the latest ROS 2 technological improvements.
  • Publication
    Modelling Open Plan Offices
    (2022-09-07) Arribas Bonilla, Clara; UC3M. Departamento de Tecnología Electrónica; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul
    The current document describes the research work carried out in the Applied Acoustics Department of Chalmers University of Technology (Gothenburg, Sweden). It corresponds to the study of two acoustic simulation softwares that are, in the moment of the project, under tests The present work is one of them, focused on the “Modelling of Open Plan Offices”, which gives the name to this Bachelor Thesis, conducted in Escuela Politécnica Superior of University Carlos III of Madrid. The main objective of the project is to prepare, perform and analyse the modelling and simulation of three Open Plan Offices, through the acoustic simulation tool developed by Aachen University, RAVEN. This implies the initial field measurements in the real rooms, the posterior 3D Modelling, and acoustic adjustments, as well as the auralizations of the selected sounds. As part of the tests, it is necessary an evaluation of the plausibility of the tools employed for the simulations, hence one real listening experiment was designed. The outcomes obtained are promising as the answers of the participants have ranked the simulations in high positions, although for some cases the results can be improved. It is also done a socio-economic study, where the advantages of the usage of this kind of tools in real spaces is analysed. The impact this may have on the design of Open Plan Offices is also considered, as the wellbeing and comfort of the employees influences not only their adequate productivity at work but also their health.
  • Publication
    Analítica del aprendizaje para la visualización y compresión de patrones de estudiantes en edX
    (2022-07-15) Sanz Gómez, María; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Moreno-Marcos, Pedro Manuel
    El concepto de MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course) ha revolucionado la educación online en los últimos años. Estos cursos aportan una gran fuente de datos generados a partir de interacciones del usuario con los distintos cursos. Existen muchas plataformas de MOOCs de las cuales este trabajo se va a centrar en una de las principales, edX. Interpretar adecuadamente los datos extraídos de MOOCs puede conllevar un gran avance en la enseñanza y en el aprendizaje a nivel educativo. Por ello, el propósito de este Trabajo de Fin de Grado es implementar dos herramientas. La función de la primera de ellas es procesar los datos extraídos de la plataforma edX con Python, de tal manera, que se obtenga un fichero resumido con todos los patrones que los estudiantes generan en cualquier curso de edX. La segunda herramienta es una aplicación web cuya finalidad es crear un panel con varias visualizaciones a partir del fichero anterior. Primero se introducirán conceptos previos y una descripción del uso de las dos herramientas implementadas con el objetivo de que puedan ser utilizadas en un futuro por personas ajenas para extraer conclusiones de sus propios MOOCs. Posteriormente, se emplearán las dos herramientas para realizar un estudio con datos correspondientes a un curso de introducción de programación en Java extraídos de edX. El estudio realizado muestra que los estudiantes aprobados son los que más eventos relacionados con el foro generan y por lo tanto los que más interactúan con él. También se analiza la deserción del curso, ya que sólo un 2,12% de participantes lo superan. Se han investigado algunas de las causas de abandono, estas podrían ser el gran número de recursos de vídeo que tiene el curso, así como la longitud y duración de estos. Otra de las conclusiones que se puede extraer observando los datos es que los estudiantes que no supera el curso no suelen frecuentar el foro y muchos de ellos ni si quiera interactúan con el curso las primeras semanas. Algunos de los patrones que más se repiten son: iniciar sesión y ver un vídeo, interactuar con un vídeo, un problema o el foro más de una vez, hacer un problema tras ver un vídeo o viceversa, hacer un problema y luego ver un vídeo. Finalmente, se evaluará la relación entre la nota final y los patrones obtenidos, y el poder predictivo de estos. La correlación muestra que los comportamientos que tienen los estudiantes dentro del curso tienen una vinculación con la nota final, siendo los valores más altos los relacionados con los problemas (video_problem, problem_video, problem_ problem y problem_foro). El carácter predictivo de los patrones se valorado usando modelos de maching learning. Los resultados que estos han mostrado han sido que los patrones elegidos, los relacionados con foro, vídeos y problemas, tienen una estrecha relación con la nota final y son buenos predictores. Ya que, en modelos como random forest y ridge regression, tan sólo se han diferido de la media en 0.13 y 0.15 puntos sobre 1.
  • Publication
    Sistema de control de movimientos de brazos robóticos mediante el análisis de la actividad cerebral
    (2022-07) Carrasco Díaz, Paula; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Villena Román, Julio
    En la presente memoria se describe el proyecto Sistema de control de movimientos de brazos robóticos mediante el análisis de la actividad cerebral cuyo objetivo es el de probar la hipótesis de si es suficiente el uso de las ondas cerebrales para determinar el movimiento. Para esto se utilizará una diadema que obtiene el EEG del paciente, una aplicación de lectura y un código de análisis. En ella se presentarán conceptos relacionados con las ondas cerebrales y el análisis de datos. Tras hacer un repaso de la historia del encefalograma y un resumen de las características de las ondas cerebrales, se introducen los diferentes modelos de regresores para el análisis de los datos: KNN, Random Forest, Ridge Regressor y Kernel Ridge Regressor. En la parte práctica del trabajo se analizan los modelos introduciendo conjuntos de datos con dos, tres y cuatro etiquetas diferentes. Se estudian los resultados y la viabilidad del proyecto en función de la exactitud de los modelos y de los costes asociados. Finalmente, en la última parte se presenta una posible aplicación futura que facilitaría mucho el día a día de pacientes con algún tipo de discapacidad motora.
  • Publication
    Evaluación de una implementación Open Source de ETSI MEC
    (2022-06) Bermúdez Cabo, Rubén; UC3M. Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Bernardos Cano, Carlos Jesús
    A medida que las redes de telecomunicaciones evolucionan, surgen nuevas tecnologías que aumentan el rendimiento y posibilitan crear novedosas aplicaciones con las que funcionar en el día a día, como es el caso de la computación en el borde. El modelo clásico sitúa el grueso de cómputo en centrales altamente equipadas que deben recibir y devolver la información teniendo en cuenta la más que probable larga distancia. Ello conlleva pérdidas, retardos mayores e inhabilita el uso de aplicaciones que no pueden funcionar correctamente sin inmediatez. Las soluciones requieren de una investigación previa donde desarrollar modelos que arrojen suficientes datos acerca de su viabilidad. Para ello, han surgido algunas plataformas que permiten, de forma muy completa y escalable, emular entornos sobre los cuales desplegar muchos tipos de aplicaciones o configuraciones. AdvantEDGE es una de ellas, recoge varios servicios del estándar European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) y permite que cualquiera recree redes de hasta más de 1.000 nodos. Durante esta memoria se introducirán los elementos más importantes que forman parte del aglomerado y el importante papel que sostienen, donde existen una serie de servicios que representan tanto funcionalidades como complementos que hacen posible evaluar otras características. Además se cuenta con casos de uso en los que se experimenta con escenarios diferentes, cuyos objetivos vienen dados por la necesidad de conocer en detalle hasta dónde permite llegar la plataforma. La finalidad global de este Trabajo de Fin de Grado (TFG) es por tanto realizar un análisis de las prestaciones de AdvantEDGE, siendo la mejor manera poner en práctica aplicaciones que trasladar a la vida real. Como el procedimiento requiere crear diagramas de red, donde cada elemento precisa de configuraciones concretas que a su vez necesitan componentes externos, para después ejecutar la aplicación e incluso observar métricas en tiempo real, se convierte en una labor dinámica de investigación en la que el apartado teórico sirve para entender el funcionamiento y el práctico para saber el potencial de AdvantEDGE. El impacto socioeconómico que supone la tecnología que explota la plataforma y que es otro de los puntos a tratar, indica que será muy positivo a medida que se vayan implantado la soluciones y se desarrollen nuevas vías. La inversión será una baza importante para las compañías, sobre todo ahora que la 5ª Generación (5G) de redes móviles está en auge y la combinación de ambos es indispensable. Con AdvantEDGE se abre una alternativa interesante para los departamentos de I+D+I, que al ser de código abierto, reduce la carga presupuestaria inicial para que puedan centrar esos esfuerzos en la instalación física necesaria. Todo esto concluye con un balance de aquello más y menos positivo tras evaluar la plataforma. Los puntos más destacables son la gran cantidad de ajustes que permite, la compatibilidad con Docker para crear aplicaciones que después se ejecuten como externas sobre el escenario de red y la facilidad de contar con herramientas adicionales al ser todas de código abierto. Por el contrario, aunque en la guía se incluyen algunos ejemplos, se muestran un tanto simplificados cuando se busca generar casos de uso complejos que se puedan implantar en la realidad de forma aproximada. Igualmente representa una potente herramienta que se encuentra en continua evolución.
  • Publication
    Design and Implementation of an Attitude Control System for High-Altitude Platforms
    (2020) Barbazán García, Ernesto; UC3M. Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial; Sanjurjo Rivo, Manuel
    Since the appearance of the first airplanes, the use of balloons for passenger transportation or military purposes has been in steady decline, remaining only recreational. However, the use of unmanned balloons for scientific research and economic benefit has sky-rocketed. High-altitude platforms, such as balloons, combine the advantages of being in a near-space environment with the low cost required to launch them, establishing as an excellent tool for studies that require these special characteristics. However, balloons are subjected to external forces that drift them in the atmosphere over the whole course of the flight, and are prone to change the orientation of their payloads. Both of these aspects can be of crucial importance when designing a mission. For this thesis, a high-fidelity simulator to predict the trajectory of the balloon, as well as a preliminary Attitude Control System (ACS) to keep the payload orientation, is developed. The high-fidelity simulator established in this work, implemented in Simulink, is an improved version of a previous work, done in MATLAB. This simulator predicts the evolution and trajectory of a sounding balloon during its ascent and descent. It makes use of the weather forecasts provided by the NOAA agency, together with some initial parameters and geometrical properties to derive the full path. The preliminary analysis of the ACS is focused in the study of a reaction wheel as the only actuator to govern the orientation of the payload and its pointing capabilities. A rotational dynamic model is implemented in Simulink to replicate the interaction between the payload, the reaction wheel and any external torque in terms of angular momentum. Additionally, a controller is included in the model to spin the reaction wheel accordingly and drive the payload to the desired orientation, while counteracting any external torque. The results provided by the high-fidelity simulator will be compared with the data of a real flight to check the validity of the model. If successful, the simulator could be used to plan future missions. Besides this, the behaviour displayed by the rotational model for a given ACS configuration enables the possibility to assess its performance and check if it will meet the requirements of a future endeavour.
  • Publication
    A robust dynamical model of a flexible space tether
    (2020) de Haro Pizarroso, Gabriel; UC3M. Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial; Sánchez Arriaga, Gonzalo
    An N-bar non-singular model to analyze tether dynamics with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom is presented. The tether is modelled as N inelastic bars with ideal joints connected to a main orbiting body on one end and an end mass on the other. The use of a non-minimal coordinate approach yields a system of equations free of orientation singularities. In terms of electromagnetic forces, a simplified non-tilted dipole model is considered. The newly developed model is compared and verified with previous works in the single bar and two-bar cases with a Monte Carlo analysis. The periodic orbits obtained by previous authors are also considered in the verification. The potential of the new model is highlighted by analyzing the effect the number of bars has on the tether dynamics in various regions of the parameter space. The optimum number of bars required to capture the full dynamic behaviour is discussed as a function of the strength of the instabilities. It is observed that if the instability is too strong, the required number of bars could be significantly higher or convergence of the motion could even be impossible.
  • Publication
    Analysis of orbital relay stations for orbital energy accumulation
    (2020) García Ortiz, Juan José; UC3M. Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial; Merino Martínez, Mario
    Space activities and attainability are constrained nowadays due to the high cost of rocketry employed put payloads in orbit. This study aims to design, analyze and optimize a network of orbital relay stations that can act as orbital energy accumulators to support other space missions. The sustainability of such network lies in a balance between payloads being orbited and deorbited. To test the viability of the proposed network, simulated missions are implemented in a programming environment in a way that can reproduce numerically the behaviour of the network in missions of increasing complexity. The design optimization of such missions is then performed assisted with a built-in genetic algorithm. The results gathered prove that the energetic balance can be achieved providing an operation with minimal degradation. Proper mission design and station orbit spacing are key in defining suitable design conditions that yield the best case performance and the genetic algorithm is applicable to reduce the losses in off-design operating conditions.