Damping low-frequency oscillations in power systems using grid-forming converters

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The increasing incorporation of renewable energy in power systems is causing growing concern about system stability. Renewable energy sources are connected to the grid through power electronic converters, reducing system inertia as they displace synchronous generators. New grid-forming converters can emulate the behavior of synchronous generators in terms of inertia provision and other grid services, like power-frequency and voltage-reactive regulation. Nevertheless, as a consequence of synchronous generator emulation, grid-forming converters also present angle oscillations following a grid disturbance. This paper proposes two novel power stabilizers for damping low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the power system. The first power stabilizer provides power oscillation damping through active power (POD-P), and it is implemented in a grid-forming converter, using the active power synchronization loop to damp system oscillations by acting on the converter angle. The second one provides power oscillation damping through reactive power (POD-Q), and it is implemented in a STATCOM, using the voltage control loop to damp system oscillations. Both proposals are first assessed in a small-signal stability study and then in a comprehensive simulation. Moreover, two cases are considered: damping the oscillations of a single machine connected to an infinite bus through a tie-line, and damping the inter-area oscillations in a two-area system. Simulation results, as well as the stability study, demonstrate the ability of both stabilizers to damp power system oscillations, being the POD-P more effective than the POD-Q, but at the cost of requiring some kind of energy provision at the DC bus.
Grid-forming power converter, STATCOM, Power oscillation damping
Bibliographic citation
Rodriguez-Amenedo, J. L., & Gomez, S. (2021). Damping Low-Frequency Oscillations in Power Systems Using Grid-Forming Converters. IEEE Access, 9, 158984-158997.