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  • Publication
    Luchar por participar: La protesta feminista en la Iglesia Católica durante el franquismo
    (Universidad de Alicante, 2016-12) Valiente Fernández, Celia; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    En un contexto político de ausencia de ciudadanía en el que las autoridades franquistas negaron el reconocimiento de numerosos derechos individuales, ciertas mujeres, en asociaciones de la Iglesia o próximas a ella, lucharon por que mejorara el estatus de la población femenina. Trataron de que las mujeres ampliaran su grado de participación en la Iglesia y la sociedad, y no tanto que la élite política les confiriera derechos civiles, políticos y sociales.
  • Publication
    Editorial: The political economy of federalism and multilevel politics in turbulent times
    (Frontiers, 2022-10-11) Garmendia Madariaga, Amuitz; León Alfonso, Sandra; Elias, Anwen; Comunidad de Madrid
  • Publication
    Collective religiosity and the gender gap in attitudes towards economic redistribution in 86 countries, 1990-2008
    (Elsevier, 2016-05) Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M.; Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Valiente Fernández, Celia; Mayrl, Damon Walter; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    What is the relationship between gender and the demand for redistribution? Because, on average, women face more economic deprivation than men, in many countries women favor redistribution more than men. However, this is not the case in a number of other countries, where women do not support redistribution more than men. To explain this cross-national paradox, we stress the role of collective religiosity. In many religions, theological principles both militate against public policies designed to redistribute income, and also promote traditionally gendered patterns of work and family involvement. Hence, we hypothesize that, in those countries where religion remains influential either through closer church-state ties or an intensely religious population, men and women should differ less in their attitudes towards redistribution. Drawing upon the World Values Survey, we estimate three-level regression models that test our religiosity-based approach and two alternative explanations in 86 countries and 175 country-years. The results are consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, in further support of our theoretical approach, societal religiosity undermines pro-redistribution preferences more among women than men. Our findings suggest that collective religiosity matters more to the gender gap in redistributive attitudes than traditional political and labor force factors. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Publication
    Pension policy literacy and retirement expectations: a cross-country survey experiment
    (Oxford University Press, 2022-04-01) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Radl, Jonas; Agencia Estatal de Investigación (España); Comunidad de Madrid
    Objectives: This study reports the findings of the first cross-national survey experiment on the effects of information on the expected retirement age. Given the drawbacks of unrealistic retirement expectations, the study examines the impacts of nonpartisan information about future demographic aging and forecasted pension benefit levels. Methods: An online survey experiment was conducted in the United States, Germany, and Spain in 2018 using an internet access panel. We assigned respondents to 2 random treatments: one citing the change in the projected share of the population older than 65 years (demographic treatment) and another citing the projected change in pension replacement rates (benefits treatment), both for 2015–2040. Treatment effects on the expected retirement age are reported. Results: The benefits treatment has a strong influence on retirement expectations. In the United States, respondents informed of the expected decline in pension replacement rates expect to retire 2 years later than respondents not informed of the decline. In Spain, this treatment leads to an approximately 9-month postponement of expected retirement, while no significant effect is found in Germany. In addition, the demographic treatment does not affect retirement expectations in the countries studied. Respondents in all countries informed of future population aging do not show different expected retirement ages than respondents not given this information. Discussion: People’s retirement expectations are sensitive to information on future changes in pension generosity but not to information on population aging. The results suggest information campaigns focused on declining pension replacement rates may help extend working lives.
  • Publication
    Societal education and the education divide in European identity, 1992-2015
    (Oxford University Press, 2018-09-01) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Eigmüller, Monika
    The fact that highly educated individuals are significantly more likely to self-identify as Europeans than those with lower levels of educational attainment is one of the most robust findings in the scholarship on individual Europeanization. Previous work also shows that this cleavage in supranational identification varies cross-nationally and over time. We contribute to the existing literature by examining the country-level, socio-structural conditions that influence the education cleavage. Focusing on how the educational environment influences identity formation, we test two divergent predictions of how societal education—i.e. the average national level of educational attainment—shapes the cleavage between individuals of differing education levels with respect to their self-identification as European. According to Welzel’s (2013) ‘cross-fertilization approach’, societal education should widen the education divide. By contrast, our alternative ‘cross-attenuating approach’ posits that societal education should instead help to close it. Using a cross-national time-series dataset that includes 28 EU member states and 28 Eurobarometers covering 1992–2015, as well as between–within multilevel models, we find a significantly narrower education cleavage in countries where societal education increased the most during the period of our study. This result provides strong support for the cross-attenuating approach presented here. We theorize that societal education helps to narrow the individual-level education cleavage through a discursive and a network mechanism.
  • Publication
    Survival in a Nazi concentration camp: the Spanish prisoners of Mauthausen
    (MIT Press, 2021-12-15) Domènech Feliu, Jordi; Fernández González, Juan Jesús
    Analysis of the extent to which higher social class (along with other demographic variables) was an advantage for Spanish prisoners at the Mauthausen concentration camp advances the study of the determinants of survival in contexts of indiscriminate violence. Use of Cox event-history models, based on detailed information collected by well-placed Spaniards at the camp, reveals that individuals from higher social classes who filled administrative positions at Mauthausen were prominent in support networks and had a good command of the German language were more likely to survive. The risk of death was highest among unskilled agricultural workers, followed by unskilled non-agricultural workers.
  • Publication
    Societal religiosity and the gender gap in political interest, 1990-2014
    (Wiley, 2021-03-01) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Mayrl, Damon Walter; Valiente Fernández, Celia; Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M.; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (España); Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    This manuscript examines the structural causes of the gender gap in political interest. In many countries, men are more interested in politics than women. Yet, in others, men and women prove equally interested. We explain this cross-national variation by focusing on the effects of societal religiosity. Since religion sustains the traditional gender order, contexts where societal religiosity is low undermine the taken-for-grantedness of this order, subjecting it to debate. Men then become especially interested in politics to try to reassert their traditional gender dominance, or to compensate for their increasingly uncertain social status. A secular environment thus increases political interest more among men than among women, expanding this gender gap. Using the World and European Values Survey, we estimate three-level regression models and test our religiosity-based approach in 96 countries. The results are consistent with our hypothesis.
  • Publication
    Women's civil rights and the worldwide liberalization of abortion on demand and for socio-economic reasons
    (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-01) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España); Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (España)
    Many independent states liberalized induced abortion statutes between 1950 and 2011, while many others retained repressive ones. This project attributes these reforms to the legal recognition of civil rights for women – i.e. freedom of mobility, their rights to paid employment, property ownership and justice. By broadening available life choices, civil rights recognition increases the opportunity cost of unwanted maternity thereby expanding women’s resources for mobilizing support for abortion reform. Using a database of 195 independent states and event-history models, the study shows that countries where women enjoy more civil rights are significantly more likely to pass socioeconomic and on demand liberalizations.
  • Publication
    Different contexts and trends: Latina immigrant fertility in the US and Spain
    (Wiley, 2018-09-01) Mora, Cristina G.; Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Torre Fernández, Margarita
    This article provides the first cross-national assessment of Latina immigrant fertility trends. Specifically, we compare Ecuadorian women in Spain (EiS) to Mexican women in the United States (MiUS). We focus on these two groups because they (1) have similar socio-economic profiles and (2) are the largest Latina subgroups in their respective host countries. We show that since 2001, the fertility rate of EiS has declined substantially more than the fertility rate of MiUS has. Drawing on census and administrative data in both countries, we assess four factors that might explain this difference: economic cycles, linguistic affinity, labor market participation, and education. We argue that labor market and education factors can best help to explain Latina fertility patterns. We conclude by discussing the findings with regard to contemporary arguments about Latino culture and immigrant fertility, and by describing the study's policy implications.
  • Publication
    The institutional foundation of social class differences in pro-redistribution attitudes: a cross-national analysis, 1985-2010
    (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-01) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M.; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    Our understanding of cross-national differences in the relationship between social class location and voting choices has improved substantially in the last decade. Yet scholarship about cross-national and longitudinal variations in the relationship between class location and policy preferences remains neglected. This paper addresses this important gap in the literature through a comparative, longitudinal analysis of the substantial, cross-national variation of class differences in pro-redistribution attitudes. To explain this variation, we focus on the role of preexisting policies and engage with an ongoing debate in the policy feedbacks literature. The self-interest approach argues that higher redistribution creates incentives among the upper classes to oppose redistribution, widening the class cleavage. By contrast, the normative approach argues that universal social policy regimes meet the fairness criteria of middle and upper classes, thereby reducing attitudinal differences. Using an innovative data set containing 106 country-years between 1985 and 2010, our study supports the self-interest approach. Countries achieving more redistribution display larger class cleavages in pro-redistribution attitudes, while universalism does not reduce this divide. The study further shows that redistribution and class cleavage are linearly related because redistribution bolsters the already low commitment with inequality reduction in the upper service and lower service classes.
  • Publication
    Domestic transnationalism and the formation of pro-European sentiments
    (SAGE Publications, 2016-09) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Eigmueller, Monika; Boerner, Stefanie
    Increasingly, research on attitudes towards the European project focuses on transnational practices. This article furthers the transnational approach by offering the first systematic analysis of how domestic transnationalism - i.e. transnational practices conducted in the home country - influences the formation of pro-European sentiments. We argue that domestic transnational activities foster recognition of common, transnational interests and identities that support the European integration project. Using a 2013 Eurobarometer, we show the distinct need to pay attention to domestic transnationalism. Individuals engaging in more domestic transnational activities display more pro-European sentiments in four of our five dependent variables. Moreover, the effect of domestic transnationalism is particularly intense among less-educated citizens.
  • Publication
    Gender quotas and public demand for increasing women's representation in politics: an analysis of 28 European countries
    (EPSR, 2021-08) Fernández González, Juan Jesús; Valiente Fernández, Celia; Agencia Estatal de Investigación (España)
    Female representation in political decision-making positions is now a salient issue in public discussions throughout Europe. Understanding public attitudes towards a more balanced gender distribution in politics remains limited, however. Using a 2017 Eurobarometer, we focus on cross-national differences in public support for increased female participation in politics to address this limitation. Building on the policy feedbacks literature, we stress the role of gender quotas. We argue that quotas - as legislative devices usually adopted through elite-driven initiatives - stimulate support for stronger female representation. Ensuing debates on quotas raise individual awareness about the underrepresentation of women - informational effect - and, once adopted, give a clear signal that persistent gender imbalance is a social problem to be redressed - normative effect. Our empirical analysis supports this argument. Citizens in countries with gender quotas display stronger support for increased female participation in politics.
  • Publication
    Sport and social movements: Lilí Álvarez in Franco's Spain
    (2019-08-01) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    Leaders and activists of social movements at times have a background of world-class achievements in sport. How does this high-profile sport background affect their activism? This article argues that in both democracies and dictatorships, a personal past of elite sport accomplishments frequently influences activist athletes' consciousness and subsequently the selection of goals to be reached through collective action, and also the very definition of those goals. Such a background often provides their holders with publicity, public stature and social and political connections, which are factors conducive to movement success. To investigate the above propositions, this article presents a case study based on published documents, archival records, interviews and secondary sources: that of Lilí Álvarez (1905&-1998) in Spain during the right-wing dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. Álvarez was a self-proclaimed feminist who individually and together with other women tirelessly advocated for women's rights. However, she was better known for her national and international multi-sport achievement, most notably reaching the Wimbledon singles finals in three consecutive years in the late 1920s. Her sporting background inspired Álvarez to demand that girls and women practise sport. Her athletic experience influenced her social consciousness in unexpected ways and on issues other than sport, such as religion and feminism. She defended a type of Catholicism comprising a positive conception of the body (derived from her sporting past) at a time when negative conceptions of the body (especially of women's bodies) prevailed. This type of thinking led her to ask for respect and autonomy for women within the Church and in society. Álvarez's sport record gave her &- and the causes she fought for &- visibility and respectability.
  • Publication
    Women pioneers in the history of sport: the case of Lilí Álvarez in Franco's Spain
    (2020-02-19) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    This article explores the historical role played by female pioneers of elite sport by studying the singular case of Lilí Álvarez (1905-1998). Álvarez was a high-profile Spanish female athlete with an outstanding career characterized by remarkable achievements in various sports, including being singles finalist in Wimbledon for three consecutive years (1926&-1928). In Franco's Spain, Álvarez contributed to the promotion of sports by publishing articles and delivering public lectures on sporting topics. In her published pieces and public talks, Álvarez tried to convince Spaniards of both sexes to exercise, however minimally. Álvarez also disseminated knowledge about sports other than soccer, the national sport. Thus, Álvarez contributed not only to the development of women's sport but also of sports in general. An analysis of Álvarez's case reveals much related to the role of elite female pioneers and their contribution to the history of sport across countries
  • Publication
    The impact of gender quotas in sport management: the case of Spain
    (2020-09-21) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    This article investigates the impact of gender quotas on sport management by analyzing the gender quota established in 2014 in Spain on boards of national sport federations (of at least three women or 33% of board members). Drawing on published and on-line documents and eighty-six interviews of female and male federation board members, I find that the Spanish gender quota increased the proportion of women board members (but not the proportion of women federation presidents). Economic sanctions for non-compliance made the quota effective. The quota had the effect within federations of making gender inequality more visible. Thus, this research concludes that gender quotas have substantial consequences for sport management other than the numerical increment of women managers.
  • Publication
    Age and feminist activism: the feminist protest within the Catholic Church in Franco's Spain
    (Taylor & Francis, 2015-07-04) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    This article examines the existence of a positive relationship between age and feminist activism by analyzing the empirical case of feminist protest within the Catholic Church in Franco's Spain. Drawing on published documents and 15 interviews, this study shows that middle-aged and elderly women have more experience and resources for participating in feminist movements than younger women. The study also identifies the circumstances where the positive relationship between age and feminist activism is more robust. The findings contradict assumptions of mainstream social movement scholarship and part of the scholarship in life-course studies and politics: that as individuals progress into middle- or old-age, many of them tend to become more committed to the established political and social order and thus less interested in (and less active in) social movements that pursue political and social change.
  • Publication
  • Publication
    Olvidando el pasado: la política familiar en España (1975-1996)
    (Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas: Instituto Nacional Administración Pública, 1996) Valiente Fernández, Celia
  • Publication
    An overview of research on gender in Spanish society
    (Sage Publications, 2002) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    This article presents an overview of research on gender in Spanish society. Six areas of literature are examined including families, education, work, politics, sexuality, and men. The author argues that political factors have shaped the development of sociology of gender in Spain and that there are still important gaps in coverage in this area of sociological inquiry.
  • Publication
    Central state child care policies in postauthoritarian Spain: Implications for gender and carework arrangements
    (Sage Publications, 2003) Valiente Fernández, Celia
    In Spain, public preschool programs have continuously expanded in the past three decades. However, this education policy has done little to support increases in the proportion of women in the paid workforce. Preschool is not child care because the former does not address the care needed by children younger than three years old and offers programs with short hours and long holidays.