Two-phase heat transfer model of a beam-down gas-solid fluidized bed solar particle receiver
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Beam-down concentrating solar power for thermochemical and energy absorption applications stands as an attractive approach that can enhance the renewable energies deployment. This work explores the integration of beam-down optics with fluidized bed technology proposing a model to calculate both gas and bed temperatures. The beam-down system concentrates the energy from the solar field into a fluidized bed receiver. A novel phenomenological model is proposed to adapt the well-known two-phase theory to the heat transfer process of a bed operating in the bubbling regime while it is directly irradiated from the top. In this way, this simple model can be used as a design tool for beam-down fluidized bed receivers. The top bed surface is considered as an opaque diffuse layer formed by gray particles. A single layer model is applied to estimate the effective emissivity between the heterogeneous bed surface and the ambient conditions in the freeboard. The vertical temperature profile is obtained considering particle phase heat conduction, particle to gas heat convection, solid convection, bubble convection and radiation heat transfer mechanisms. The model is validated using silicon carbide and zirconia fluidized bed experiments reported in the literature. The model shows that the solid convection is the dominant heat transfer mechanism for a beam-down fluidized bed receiver. Further results explore the influence of the operating conditions on the fluidized bed receiver for a bed of silicon carbide particles, showing that energy concentration fluxes of 35 . 10(4) W/m(2) can reach bed temperatures of 1000 degrees C when operating at a gas velocities of 3.U-mf.