Modelling multiple-simultaneous impact problems with a nonlinear smooth approach: pool/billiard application
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Springer Nature Ltd.
Smooth approaches are able to model reasonably well contact/impact events between two bodies, showing some peculiarities when dealing with certain geometries and arising certain issues with the detection of the initial instant of contact. The characterization of multiple-simultaneous interaction systems, considering (or not) energy dissipation phenomena (mainly friction), is always an interesting research topic, addressed from different perspectives. In the present work, the process of design, optimization and verification of a multiple-impact, day-to-day multibody novel model is shown. Specifically, we have decided to focus on a pool/billiard game due to its geometry simplicity. The model involves several balls moving freely and rolling, suffering different kinds of contacts/impacts among them and against the cushions and the cloth. In this system, the proper modelling of both contact and friction forces in the multiple, simultaneous contacts and impacts events is critical to obtain consistent results. In addition, these forces are complicated to model because of its nonlinear behaviour. The different existing approaches when dealing with multiple-contact events are briefly described, along with their most distinctive features. Then, the interactions identified on the model are implemented using several nonlinear contact-force models, following a smooth-based approach and considering friction phenomena, aiming at determining the most suitable set of both contact and friction force models for each of these implemented interactions, which take place simultaneously, thus resulting in a complex system with multiple impacts. Subsequently, the solving method that provides the most accurate results at the minimum computational cost is determined by testing a simple shot. Finally, the different interactions on the model are verified using experimental results and previous works. One of the main goals of this work is to show the some of the issues that arise when dealing with multiple-simultaneous impact multibody systems from a smooth-contact approach, and how researchers can deal with them.