Wavelet Analysis to Detect Ground Faults in Electrical Power Systems with Full Penetration of Converter Interface Generation

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The requirements for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electrical power systems have led to a dominance of power electronic interfaces. As a result, short-circuit currents have been reduced by the thermal limitations of power electronics, leading to problems associated with the sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability of protective relays. Although many solutions can be found in the literature, these depend on communications and are not reliable in all grid topologies or under different types of electrical fault. Hence, in this paper, the analysis of ground fault currents and voltages using a wavelet transform in combination with a new algorithm not only detects such ground faults but also allows them to be cleared quickly and selectively in scenarios with low fault current contribution due to a full penetration converter-interface-based generation. To verify and validate the proposed protection system, different ground faults are simulated using an arc ground fault model in a grid scheme based on the IEEE nine-bus standard test system, with only grid-forming power converters as generation sources. The test system is modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Therefore, the protection relays that verify all the steps established in the new algorithm can detect and clear any ground defect. Simulations are also presented involving different fault locations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ground fault protection method.
Arc ground faults, Electrical faults, Fault detection, Grid-forming power converter, Renewable energy sources, Wavelet transform
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Azuara Grande, L. S., Granizo, R., & Arnaltes, S. (2023). Wavelet analysis to detect ground faults in electrical power systems with full penetration of converter interface generation. Electronics, 12(5), 1085.