Compact interrogation system of fiber Bragg grating sensors based on multiheterodyne dispersion interferometry for dynamic strain measurements

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Dual-comb multiheterodyne spectroscopy is a well-established technology for the highly sensitive real-time detection and measurement of the optical spectra of samples, including gases and fiber sensors. However, a common drawback of dual-comb spectroscopy is the need for a broadband amplitude-resolved absorption or reflection measurement, which increases the complexity of the dual comb and requires the precise calibration of the optical detection. In the present study, we present an alternative dispersion-based approach applied to fiber Bragg grating sensors in which the dual comb is compacted by a single dual-drive-unit optical modulator, and the fiber sensor is part of a dispersion interferometer. The incident dual comb samples a few points in the spectrum that are sensitive to Bragg wavelength changes through the optical phase. The spectra reading is improved due to the external interferometer and is desensitized to changes in the amplitude of the comb tones. The narrow-band detection of the fiber sensor dispersion changes that we demonstrate enables the compact, cost-effective, high-resolution multiheterodyne interrogation of high-throughput interferometric fiber sensors. These characteristics open its application both to the detection of fast phenomena, such as ultrasound, and to the precise measurement at high speed of chemical-/biological-sensing samples. The results with a low-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating show the detection of dynamic strain in the range of 215 nepsilon with a 30 dB signal to noise ratio and up to 130 kHz (ultrasonic range).
Nano-strain, Vibrations, Ultrasounds, Dual optical frequency comb, Phase-generated carrier, Pgc, Fiber bragg grating sensors, Dispersion interferometer, Multiheterodyne sources, Dual-drive mach-zehnder modulator
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Poiana, D. A., Posada-Roman, J. E., & Garcia-Souto, J. A. (2022). Compact Interrogation System of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Based on Multiheterodyne Dispersion Interferometry for Dynamic Strain Measurements. In Sensors, 22(9), 3561-3576