Fogs: Physical Basis, Characteristic Properties, and Impacts on the Environment and Human Health

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This work presents a selective overview of natural fogs in terms of fog types, forms and states of occurrence, physical, micro-physical, chemical and dynamic properties, basic characterizing parameters, etc. In focus are related achievements and contributions reported mainly during the last decade and a half, as a result of both laboratory studies and field observations. Processes of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation are analyzed in the aspects of condensation, nuclei diversity and specifics, as related to the activation, growth and deposition of fog droplets. The effect is highlighted of the water vapor's partial pressure on the surface tension of the liquid water-air interface and the freezing point of the water droplets. Some problems and aspects of fog modeling, parameterization, and forecasting are outlined and discussed on the examples of newly developed relevant 1D/3D theoretical models. Important issues of fog impacts on the air quality, ecosystems, water basins, societal life, and human health are also addressed and discussed, particularly in cases of anthropogenically modified (chemical, radioactive, etc.) fogs. In view of reducing the possible negative effects of fogs, conclusions are drawn concerning the new demands and challenges to fog characterization imposed by the changing natural and social environment and the needs for new data on and approaches to more adequate observations of fog-related events.
Fog, Water condensation, Droplet nucleation, Fog formation, Fog modeling, Fog forecasting, Ecological impacts
Bibliographic citation
Pérez-Díaz, J., Ivanov, O., Peshev, Z. Y., Alvarez–Valenzuela, M. A., Valiente–Blanco, I., Evgenieva, T., Dreischuh, T. N., Gueorguiev, O., Todorov, P., & Vaseashta, A. (2017). Fogs: physical basis, characteristic properties, and impacts on the environment and human health. Water, 9(10), 807.