Goat milk exosomes as natural nanoparticles for detecting inflammatory processes by optical imaging

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Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles with a proven intercellular signaling role in inflammation processes and immune response. Due to their natural origin and liposome-like structure, these nanometer-scale vesicles have emerged as novel platforms for therapy and diagnosis. In this work, goat milk exosomes are isolated and fully characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, proteomics, and biochemical profile in healthy mice, and used to detect inflammatory processes by optical imaging. For the in vitro and in vivo experiments, the exosomes are covalently labeled with the commercial fluorophores sulfo-Cyanine 5 and BODIPY-FL to create nanoprobes. In vitro studies using confocal imaging, flow cytometry, and colorimetric assays confirm the internalization of the nanoprobes as well their lack of cytotoxicity in macrophage populations RAW 264.7. Optical imaging in the mouse peritoneal region confirms the in vivo ability of one of the nanoprobes to localize inflammatory processes. In vivo imaging shows exosome uptake in the inflamed peritoneal region, and flow-cytometric analysis of peritonitis exudates confirms the uptake by macrophage and neutrophil populations. These results support the promising use of goat milk exosomes as natural probes in the detection of inflammatory processes.
Exosomes, Fluorescence imaging, Goat milk, Inflammation, Macrophages, Nanoparticles, Peritonitis
Bibliographic citation
Santos‐Coquillat, A., González, M. I., Clemente‐Moragón, A., González‐Arjona, M., Albaladejo‐García, V., Peinado, H., Muñoz, J., Ximénez Embún, P., Ibañez, B., Oliver, E., Desco, M. & Salinas, B. (2021). Goat Milk Exosomes As Natural Nanoparticles for Detecting Inflammatory Processes By Optical Imaging. Small, 18(6), 2105421.