Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students

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dc.contributor.author Molina, J. Alberto
dc.contributor.author Giménez-Nadal, J. Ignacio
dc.contributor.author Cuesta, José A.
dc.contributor.author Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos
dc.contributor.author Moreno, Yamir
dc.contributor.author Sánchez, Angel
dc.date.accessioned 2014-07-22T13:27:51Z
dc.date.available 2014-07-22T13:27:51Z
dc.date.issued 2013-12-18
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitation PLOS ONE (2013), vol. 8, n. 12 (e83700), pp.1-10
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10016/19149
dc.description.abstract The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
dc.description.sponsorship This paper has benefited from the funding from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (Projects ECO2012-34828, RESINEE and PRODIEVO). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.format.extent 10
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher PLoS ONE
dc.rights © 2013 Molina et al.
dc.rights Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/
dc.subject.other Prisoner's dilemma
dc.subject.other Parents investing less
dc.subject.other Child-care time
dc.subject.other Rational cooperation
dc.subject.other Promote cooperation
dc.subject.other Sex
dc.subject.other Allocation
dc.subject.other Behavior
dc.subject.other Humans
dc.subject.other Countries
dc.title Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students
dc.type article
dc.relation.publisherversion http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083700
dc.subject.eciencia Estadística
dc.subject.eciencia Matemáticas
dc.subject.eciencia Psicología
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0083700
dc.rights.accessRights openAccess
dc.relation.projectID Comunidad de Madrid. S2009/ESP-1691/MODELICO
dc.relation.projectID Gobierno de España.ECO2012-34828
dc.relation.projectID Gobierno de España. FIS2011-22449/PRODIEVO
dc.type.version publishedVersion
dc.identifier.publicationfirstpage 1
dc.identifier.publicationissue 12(e83700)
dc.identifier.publicationlastpage 10
dc.identifier.publicationtitle PloS one
dc.identifier.publicationvolume 8
dc.identifier.uxxi AR/0000014411
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