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Analysis and Design of Algorithms for the Improvement of Non-coherent Massive MIMO based on DMPSK for beyond 5G systems

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2023-03-07
Defense date
2023-05-19
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Nowadays, it is nearly impossible to think of a service that does not rely on wireless communications. By the end of 2022, mobile internet represented a 60% of the total global online traffic. There is an increasing trend both in the number of subscribers and in the traffic handled by each subscriber. Larger data rates, smaller extreme-to-extreme (E2E) delays and greater number of devices are current interests for the development of mobile communications. Furthermore, it is foreseen that these demands should also be fulfilled in scenarios with stringent conditions, such as very fast varying wireless communications channels (either in time or frequency) or scenarios with power constraints, mainly found when the equipment is battery powered. Since most of the wireless communications techniques and standards rely on the fact that the wireless channel is somehow characterized or estimated to be pre or post-compensated in transmission (TX) or reception (RX), there is a clear problem when the channels vary rapidly or the available power is constrained. To estimate the wireless channel and obtain the so-called channel state information (CSI), some of the available resources (either in time, frequency or any other dimension), are utilized by including known signals in the TX and RX typically known as pilots, thus avoiding their use for data transmission. If the channels vary rapidly, they must be estimated many times, which results in a very low data efficiency of the communications link. Also, in case the power is limited or the wireless link distance is large, the resulting signal-tointerference- plus-noise ratio (SINR) will be low, which is a parameter that is directly related to the quality of the channel estimation and the performance of the data reception. This problem is aggravated in massive multiple-input multiple-output (massive MIMO), which is a promising technique for future wireless communications since it can increase the data rates, increase the reliability and cope with a larger number of simultaneous devices. In massive MIMO, the base station (BS) is typically equipped with a large number of antennas that are coordinated. In these scenarios, the channels must be estimated for each antenna (or at least for each user), and thus, the aforementioned problem of channel estimation aggravates. In this context, algorithms and techniques for massive MIMO without CSI are of interest. This thesis main topic is non-coherent massive multiple-input multiple-output (NC-mMIMO) which relies on the use of differential M-ary phase shift keying (DMPSK) and the spatial diversity of the antenna arrays to be able to detect the useful transmitted data without CSI knowledge. On the one hand, hybrid schemes that combine the coherent and non-coherent schemes allowing to get the best of both worlds are proposed. These schemes are based on distributing the resources between non-coherent (NC) and coherent data, utilizing the NC data to estimate the channel without using pilots and use the estimated channel for the coherent data. On the other hand, new constellations and user allocation strategies for the multi-user scenario of NC-mMIMO are proposed. The new constellations are better than the ones in the literature and obtained using artificial intelligence techniques, more concretely evolutionary computation.
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Mención Internacional en el título de doctor
Keywords
5G and beyond systems, Non-coherent, MIMO, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output, OFDM, Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
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