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Acoustic gain in solids due to piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity, and electrostriction

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2020-09-24
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Wiley-VCH
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A quantitative discussion of the combined influence of three electromechanical effects: piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity, and electrostriction in solids is provided for acoustic absorption and gain. While piezoelectricity occurs in non-centrosymmetric materials only, flexoelectricity and electrostriction exist in all materials. Two important new results are demonstrated: 1) the possibility to realize acoustic gain in all materials (centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric) when the acoustic Cherenkov condition is fulfilled, and 2) realization of acoustic gain in the presence of a strong dc electric field, even when the Cherenkov condition is not fulfilled, in the case of strong cross-coupling between piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity, and electrostriction. A simple analytical expression for the acoustic dispersion relation is derived for the combined effect of piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity, and electrostriction. At lower frequencies, the piezoelectric effect dominates for inversion-asymmetric materials. At high frequencies (˜>1 MHz) flexoelectricity becomes increasingly important and eventually provides a major mechanism for gain and absorption in barium titanate (BaTiO3). In the presence of strong electric fields (˜>1 MV m-1), electrostriction provides a dominant isolated contribution to absorption/gain in BaTiO3. Strong coupling between the three electromechanical contributions determines the total absorption/gain coefficient.
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Acoustic gain, Cherenkov effect, Electrostriction, Piezoelectricity, Flexoelectricity
Bibliographic citation
Advanced Functional Materials, (2020), 30(39), 2003503, p.: 1-7.