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Nueva familia de convertidores CA/CC con corrección del factoria de potencia e intervalo de inductancias en serie (SII)

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2003
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2003-07-22
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Para minimizar los efectos negativos de los armónicos de corriente inyectados en las redes de distribución de energía eléctrica por parte de los equipos electrónicos, la Unión Europea ha impuesto el cumplimiento de la norma IEC 6 1000-3-2. Para lograrlo, frente a los tradicionales convertidores alterna — continua conmutados en dos etapas, que demandan de la red corriente sinusoidal, pero que presentan un elevado coste para un rango de potencia inferior a los 500 W, surgen como alternativa aquellos, cuya corriente se limita a cumplir dicha norma. En este trabajo de investigación se propone una nueva familia de convertidores CA / CC que se ha denominado con el acrónimo Sil (Intervalo de inductancias en Serie), para intentar mejorar las principales limitaciones de los actuales convertidores CA / CC monofásicos de baja potencia. Los convertidores desarrollados utilizan una técnica de división paralelo de energía mediante el uso de un conmutador magnético. Esta técnica consigue reducir el valor y también la variación de la tensión en el condensador de almacenamiento y por tanto su tamaño. Al mismo tiempo se cumplen los límites de la Clase D de la norma IEC 6 1000-3-2 y todo ello con un coste reducido, para un rango de potencia hasta los 300W.
Conventional power supplies return harmonic currents to the utility. Rarmonics Regulations arise to reduce the problems related to harmonics currents (voltage distortion, extra heating, lower capability of energy generation and transmission, etc.). However, the presence of these regulations such as the WC61000-3-2 has provided new possibilities for power supplies. Now, it is enough to present harmonic currents lower than the regulation limits. Based on this idea, a new group of solutions, which take non-sinusoidal current from the une, have gained much attention because of their potential lower cost and lower complexity compared with the two stages approach, mainly for low power applications. These solutions have been also calleci single — stage PFC (power factor correction) AC / DC converters. The revision of the state of the art of the single-stage PFC converters allows detecting which are the main features that could be improved. These are the foliowing: • The maximum value and the variation of the storage capacitor voltage should be reduced in order to obtain a lower size and a lower cost for this capacitor. • The harmonic content of the input current of the converter should comply with the WC 6 1000-3-2 Class D limits. In this case, the converter can be applied to feed also the “high impact products” such as PCs, PC monitors and television sets. In order to achieve these aims, in this thesis an original family of converters has been proposed. This new family is characterized by presenting a stage of the switching period, in which the magnetizing inductance of the two inner transfonners result corinected in series while their common reset is produced. The name of “Series Inductance Interval (Sil)” come from this feature. in this work a detailed analysis of the steady - state operation for the proposed converters has been carried out. Moreover, sorne calculus programs has been developed to automatically design both, the power stage and the regulator of the feedback loop. In this work a large signal average model has been obtained for each converter of the family. These models are oriented to circuit simulation and they have been developed using PSpice. The simulation results have been used to predict the small sigua! behavior as well as to determine which values of gain, bandwidth and phase margin are required for the proper operation of the converters. Finaily, a prototype of each converter of the proposed family has been built in order to check both, the circuits and the modeis developed. These prototypes have corroborated the good operation of this new family of converters.
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