IIEEF - Artículos de Revistas

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    International R&D sourcing, innovation and firm age: The advantage of 'born-international sourcers'
    (Elsevier, 2023-04) Asimakopoulos, Grigorios; Revilla Torrejón, Antonio Javier; Rodríguez Márquez, Alicia
    We study how international knowledge sourcing affects the innovation performance of firms of different ages (from inception to mature). Specifically, we analyze (i) the contribution of international R&D sourcing to product innovations having a high degree of novelty- i.e. products that are new to the market; and (ii) the moderating role of firm age in this relationship. In doing so, we contrast two arguments that have created a debate in the literature: One is that experience plays a key role in successfully managing the inherent complexity of offshoring; another is that firms internationalizing at an early stage enjoy the learning advantages of newness. Based on a panel of over 9000 firms based in Spain spanning from 2008 to 2016, our findings indicate that international R&D sourcing is positively related to product innovations having a high degree of novelty, and that firm age exerts a negative moderating effect on the international R&D sourcing-innovation relationship. These results allow us to conclude that the innovation benefits of internationalizing the acquisition of knowledge are greater for younger firms. We identify the advantage of firms performing international R&D sourcing during their early stages and introduce the concept of "born-international sourcers" to identify firms that engage in international sourcing strategies from an early stage.
  • Publication
    Examining the moderating effects of work unit size and task analyzability in the relation between leader's communication style and leader-member exchange
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-06-09) Brown, Ofelia; Paz Aparicio, Carmen; Comunidad de Madrid; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
    There is a consensus regarding the impact of the leaders communication on the relationship with their followers and on the achievement of organizational outcomes. This study seeks to contribute to clarifying the impact that contextual factors have on the leaders communication in order to know how leaders should adjust their communication style, depending on the job characteristics, to build high quality relationships with their followers. Therefore, the current research examines the moderating role of two context factors in the effectiveness of leaders communication in generating the leader-member relationship. Through a moderation analysis on a sample of 149 white-collar workers, this research study analyzes how work unit size and task analyzability interact regarding six dimensions of leader communication style in relation to LMX. Results suggest that the work unit size moderates the relationship between two dimensions of leaders communication style (preciseness and verbal aggressiveness) and LMX. Specifically, the positive effect of preciseness on LMX smooths as the work unit size increases. The negative effect of verbal aggressiveness on LMX becomes more intense as work unit size increases. Furthermore, task analyzability moderates the positive relationship between emotionality and LMX for low levels of task analyzability. As a result, this study contributes by deepening on why leaders communicative behaviors can have favorable/unfavorable results in specific contexts and on how a leader can modulate his/her communication style according to the context, in order to improve the LMX. Implications are discussed.
  • Publication
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Managed Aquifer Recharge System for Irrigation under Climate Change Conditions in Southern Spain
    (MDPI, 2017-05-12) Rupérez Moreno, Carmen; Pérez Sánchez, Julio; Senent Aparicio, Javier; Flores Asenjo, Pilar; Paz Aparicio, Carmen
    Droughts and climate change in regions with profitable irrigated agriculture will impact groundwater resources with associated direct and indirect impacts. In the integrated water resource management (IWRM), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) offers efficient solutions to protect, conserve, and ensure survival of aquifers and associated ecosystems, as the Water Framework Directive requires. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the socio-economic feasibility of the MAR system in the overexploited Boqueron aquifer in Hellin (Albacete, Spain) under climate change and varying irrigation demand conditions. To assess, in monetary terms, the profitability of the MAR system, a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has been carried out. The results for the period 2020-2050 showed that the most favourable situations would be scenarios involving artificial recharge, in which future irrigation demand remains at the present level or falls below 10% of the current irrigation surface, as these scenarios generated an internal rate of return of between 53% and 57%. Additionally, the regeneration of the habitat will take between 5 and 9 years. Thus, the IWRM with artificial recharge will guarantee the sustainability of irrigation of the agricultural lands of Hellin and will achieve water balance even in severe climate change conditions.
  • Publication
    Failed and successful innovations: The role of geographic proximity and international diversity of partners in technological collaboration
    (Elsevier, 2021-05) Santamaria Sanchez, Luis; Nieto Sánchez, María Jesús; Rodríguez Márquez, Alicia; Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (España)
    We aim to clarify the role of research partnerships on the success and failure of innovation projects by examining the geographic proximity and diversity of partners. First, we argue that collaboration with geographically near partners will contribute relatively more to innovation success than it does to innovation failure, while collaboration with geographically distant partners will contribute relatively more to innovation failure than it does to innovation success. Second, we postulate that lower levels of international diversity will contribute relatively more to innovation success than it does to innovation failure, while higher levels of international diversity will contribute relatively more to innovation failure than it does to innovation success. Using a large dataset of firms for the period 2008–2013, we perform a joint analysis of failed and successful innovations. Our empirical findings support our theoretical arguments. Our results highlight the relevance of studying both failed and successful innovations and the importance of knowing their determinants to manage the innovation process successfully. Moreover, our findings should alert managers to the importance of geographic location when choosing collaboration partners. It is noteworthy that beyond a certain threshold, international diversity begins to act as a brake on innovation success and to increase the likelihood of failure.
  • Publication
    Learning from R&D outsourcing vs. learning by R&D outsourcing
    (Elsevier, 2018-04) Un, C. Annique; Rodríguez Márquez, Alicia; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    We analyze how research and development (R&D) outsourcing influences product innovation. We propose a separation between learning from R&D outsourcing, whereby the firm improves its ability to innovate by using outsourced R&D directly in new products, from learning by R&D outsourcing, whereby the firm indirectly uses outsourced R&D by integrating it with internal R&D to create new products. Building on the knowledge-based view, we argue that learning from R&D outsourcing is likely to have an inverse U-shaped relationship with product innovation, because the initial benefits of using outsourced component R&D knowledge to innovate products is eventually outweighed by the hollowing out of the firm's ability to innovate. In contrast, we propose that learning by R&D outsourcing is likely to have a U-shaped relationship with product innovation, because the initial challenges of integrating internal and external R&D are eventually overcome, resulting in more innovations. Finally, we distinguish between domestic and foreign R&D outsourcing and propose a liability of foreignness in R&D outsourcing as it has a lower impact on new products than domestic R&D outsourcing. The empirical analysis shows that outsourced R&D has an inverted U-shaped relationship with the number of new products, while the interaction between outsourced R&D and internal R&D has a U-shaped relationship with the number of new products. It also shows that domestic outsourced R&D has a higher positive impact on the number of new products than foreign outsourced R&D.
  • Publication
    Do Big 5 Personality Characteristics and Narcissism Predict Engagement in Leader Development?
    (Frontiers, 2018-09-28) Blair, Carrie A.; Palmieri, Rachele E.; Paz Aparicio, Carmen
    This study examines personality as a predictor of engagement behavior displayed during leader development programs. Leader development engagement behavior (LDEB) is measured by collecting self- and director ratings of behaviors displayed by undergraduate students during 1-year leader development programs (e.g., showing interest in a variety of topics, maintaining a positive attitude, arriving prepared for meetings, engaging with peers, and reflecting on development). Results suggest that factors of the Big 5 personality characteristics and the Narcissism Personality Inventory predict engagement behaviors in leader development. Post hoc analysis was conducted to better understand patterns of relationships between Big 5 factors and narcissism with specific LDEBs. Narcissism is negatively correlated with director ratings of reflection on development and engagement with peers. As a result of this research, leader development program directors should consider the benefits and risks of including narcissistic individuals in leader development programs.
  • Publication
    Leader's communication style, LMX and organizational commitment: a study of employee perceptions in Peru
    (Emerald Publishing Limited., 2019-04-01) Brown, Ofelia; Paz Aparicio, Carmen; Revilla Torrejón, Antonio Javier
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of a leader’s communication style (LCS) on the quality of interpersonal exchanges between leaders and followers (LMX), and how this translates into the employee’s affective organizational commitment (AOC), in the context of Peru. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated model of six dimensions is used to measure LCS. Using multiple hierarchical regressions and the Preacher and Hayes mediation model, the study focuses on determining the direct and indirect effect of each of the dimensions on LMX and organizational commitment. Findings: The dimension preciseness shows a significant direct association to AOC. Four dimensions are significantly related with LMX: expressiveness, preciseness and questioningness with a positive sign, while verbal aggressiveness records an important negative one. The same four dimensions show an indirect effect on AOC through LMX. Emotionality and impression manipulativeness do not record significant results. Research limitations/implications: The research was carried out with a sample of 253 white-collar Peruvian professionals with high-level studies and managerial experience, which are not necessarily representative of the labor population. This research provides comprehensive evidence on how leaders’ communicative behavior may contribute to desirable outcomes such as employee commitment in a Latin American cultural context, although the findings may apply to other cultures. Practical implications: This study contributes to clarify that each dimension of the LCS impacts differently on subordinate perceptions; leaders should understand this model and be able to make the necessary adjustments to their communication in order to obtain the desired results of leadership. The leader’s ability to communicate with a style characterized by expressiveness, precision, and questioning makes it easy to build high-quality LMX relationships for Peruvian employees. On the contrary, a communication style characterized by high levels of verbal aggressiveness may negatively affect subordinates, limiting the possibility of building high-quality LMX relationships. This, in turn, affects AOC of employees. Social implications: This study is a contribution to clarify that each feature of the LCS has a different impact on the perception of the subordinate, for which the leaders should be trained to understand this model and be able to make the necessary adjustments to obtain the desired results of leadership. The leader’s ability to communicate with a style characterized by expressiveness, precision and questioning makes it easy to build high-quality LMX relationships for Peruvian employees. On the contrary, a communication style characterized by high levels of verbal aggressiveness will negatively impact subordinates, limiting the possibility of building high-quality LMX relationships. Originality/value: The value lies in revisiting the construct “leader’s communication style” to turn it into an instrument for the exercise of leadership. It is a contribution in favor of leaders becoming aware that their own communication style constitutes an instrument of effective leadership and a lever to optimize the commitment of their collaborators toward the organization.
  • Publication
    Understanding the decision to offshore human resource activities: a coevolutionary perspective
    (Emerald Publishing Limited., 2017-03-06) Paz Aparicio, Carmen; Ricart, Joan E.; Bonache, Jaime; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    Purpose: Offshoring has been studied widely in the literature on strategic management and international business. However, apart from its consideration as an administrative activity, scant attention has been paid to the offshoring of the human resource (HR) function. Research in this regard has instead focussed on outsourcing (Reichel and Lazarova, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to achieve a better understanding of companies’ decisions to offshore HR activities. It adapts the outsourcing model of Baron and Kreps (1999) by including the HR offshoring phenomenon and a dynamic perspective. Design/methodology/approach: While the analysis is mostly conceptual, the authors ground the author’s arguments in offshoring data from the Offshoring Research Network, to explore whether the drivers for offshoring HR differ from the drivers for offshoring other administrative activities. The idiosyncrasy of the HR function is supported by the authors’ exploratory analysis and also by the descriptive case of a multinational and its experience with offshoring. Findings: A coevolutionary model is proposed for understanding the behaviour of companies offshoring their HR activities. This study contends that companies should address their decision to offshore HR activities from a dynamic perspective, being aware of three processes that are in constant change: the evolution of the HR function, the evolution of service providers, and the evolution of offshoring decisions. Originality/value: This study seeks to make a threefold contribution to the international business, strategy, and HR management disciplines.
  • Publication
    Selecting the governance mode when offshoring knowledge-intensive activities
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2018-10) Paz Aparicio, Carmen; Muñoz-Bullón, Fernando; Sánchez-Bueno, María José; Ricart, Joan E.; Comunidad de Madrid; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
    The offshoring phenomenon has evolved in recent years, and can be understood from a threefold perspective: first, the evolution in the type of activity being offshored; second, the learning curve involving both the companies implementing offshoring and service providers; and third, the reasons for offshoring. This study proposes an empirical framework that will allow us to explore the interaction between the type of activity (specifically knowledge-intensive) and the drivers of the decision to select the most appropriate governance mode. Specifically, our results show that market-seeking drivers become the primary determinants prompting firms to offshore knowledge-intensive activities through a captive center. In contrast, the motivation to reduce costs moderates the decision to offshore knowledge-intensive activities by nurturing a preference for offshore outsourcing. The empirical evidence is supported by multi-country data from the Offshoring Research Network.