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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Reconstruction of Export Series for Peru before the Great Depression
    (2018-12) Zegarra, Luis Felipe
    This article discusses the available sources of information on the value and volume of Peru’s exports and estimates the current value of exports, the index of export prices and the quantum of exports using a wide variety of sources. By relying on several sources, I estimate the first complete series of the current value of exports for Peru for 1830-1930. Importantly, I adjust other studies’ estimates by taking into account the deficiencies of foreign sources and by distinguishing between exports of specie and of minerals. The estimations show that exports experienced substantial growth in the 1850s and 1860s, during the Guano Era. Exports stagnated in the 1870s and dropped during the War of the Pacific (1879-1883) before recovering in the late 19th and early 20th.
  • Publication
    Naturaleza y efectos de la política de patentes en el régimen de la industrialización por sustitución de importaciones en México entre 1940-1970
    (2018-12) Campa Navarro, Juan Ignacio
    In Mexico during the protectionist economic regime a process of industrial modernization was carried out which led to the incorporation of different types of technologies into the structures and processes of production or consumption. The patent policy was implemented with the interest of encouraging the attraction of novel technologies, but their contribution was quite limited due to the nature, design and operation, with which it was conformed. Therefore, the patent policy did not drive patenting activity in a high and sustained manner. It was ineffective to contribute to the development of technologies generated by local actors, and marginally propitiated the productive exploitation of patents.
  • Publication
    Chilean Trade 1880-1930: a Comment on the Sources for the Age of Exports
    (2018-12) Badia Miró, Marc; Díaz Bahamonde, José
    This research note discusses the accuracy of the main sources used to study the foreign sector during the export-led growth process in Chile. Chilean foreign trade statistics are available for the period under analysis (1850-1930) and offered a good overview of products exported and imported. Bilateral trade data are also available providing information of exports and imports by origin and destiny. Although more research is needed on trade prices, we conclude that Chilean statistics are reliable and provide a way for understanding the export-led growth in Chile and the trade performance of the Chilean partners.
  • Publication
    Las subvenciones adicionales en la compañía ferroviaria MZA
    (2018-12) Castellvi Narbón, David Carlos; Barquín Gil, Rafael
    The construction of the rail network in Spain was supported by public aid. A part of them were “subvenciones adicionales”, which came from the exemption of the payment of customs duties on the imports of railway equipment. The exact amount of these grants is only known after 1870 when they were rather small. In this paper, we quantified them for the period 1857-1886 in the company MZA, by then the largest in the country. Moreover, we estimate the costs of the construction of the railway lines of that company until 1869 and how much did each of the sources of funding, public and private contributed. The main conclusion is that in MZA the State’s her than the shareholders’ investment.
  • Publication
    La banca de emisión andaluza en perspectiva nacional (1856-1914)
    (2018-12) Tedde de Lorca, Pedro
    This article attempts to establish a quantitative revision of issuing banks created in Andalusia in the middle of nineteenth century founded as a result of liberal banking laws in 1856, comparing with those of similar dimension in other Spanish provinces. Possible causes of their soon extinction are discussed, like the financial worldwide crisis in the 1860s, the monopoly issue granted to the Bank of Spain in 1874 and the specific circumstances of regional banking. The article tries also to evaluate the performance of Bank of Spain branches, since 1875 until 1914, in those Andalusian places where issue banks were independent before and in relation to the fluctuations of the regional economy in that period.
  • Publication
    A Fatal Flaw: Domestic Banks and Mexico’s International Negotiating Position in the 1982 Debt Crisis
    (2018-12) Alvarez, Sebastián
    The recent European debt crisis has renewed interest as to why debtor countries honour their foreign debts and subscribe to respectively burdensome rescheduling conditions. While the cost of defaulting in a domestic financial system has been recognised as a main motive for repayment, the factors that cause sovereign states to refrain from debt repudiation are not fully understood. This article investigates the reasons behind the repayment decision and weak negotiating position of the Mexican government following the 1982 debt crisis. It shows that leading commercial banks had considerable amounts of external loans in their books, and that Mexican policymakers lacked the foreign exchange access they needed to secure the stability of the domestic banking system. The high exposure of domestic banks to Mexican debt and their heightened dependence on foreign capital worked as mechanisms that allowed international creditors to enforce their claims and deterred Mexico from declaring a unilateral default.